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- Sinkiang Province
by A. Doak Barnett
ADB Lanchow Kansu September Mr Walter S Roers Institute Current Affairs Fifth Avenue Yore N Y Dear Mr Rogers Since letter I traveled literally thousands miles visited scores fascinatin places talEed hundreds interestin people important unimportant The immensity variety China awesome first areas which heretofore merel spaces taken dimensions reality A great spent moving place place I almost every conceivable transport airplanes horses steamships river junks After leaving Chungking I traveled continuously longest stopover being until I arrived Tiha capital Sinkang For various reasons I forced circuitous route through Yangtze Gorges Chungking Hankow Hankow Shan Khai train Shanghai Nanking Nanking Tihwa I spent about month Sinkiang divided between TiRes various nearby places For first absorbed local anosphere reread material I could relevant Sinkian collected analyzed available documents concernin Ill Revolt northwestern province The American consul J Hall Paxton I stayed Tihwa extremely helpful briefing backsrouud present situation Then I be8an series interviews Chinese UiKhur Eazakh leaders Some prominent I conversations included Liu Men8ch General T Chih Liu Tse Mesud Sabri Aisabek Burhan Jarindmn Mohammed Imin names which I significance finished readin report Using Tihwa headquarters I several trips outlying places truck seback First I Bogda Ola T Shah Celestial Mountain climbed laoler about glimpse Kazakhs their native habitat I vislted important military posts Manas River which divides rebel Ili territory Sinkiang other Chitai command eadquarters troops which arrison Peitashan China Outer Monolla border The excitin which I however horseback T Shan south Chi visit Eazakh leader Osman There I slept lares quantities mutton drank kumis fermented talked Osman other Kazakh leaders through Chinese interpreters watched review Kazakh horsemen generally absorbed exciting atmosphere surroundin colorful militant group nomads After I Sinkian about friends I reviously Henry Lieberma New York Times Inn Morrison London Times arrived Tihwa joined forces during there makin interviews trips Jointly The biggest experience Sinkiang I visit southern province I tried however talking eople recently there including British Consul Kshgar E E Shipton Durin month Sinkiang I gathered enormous amount material present situation provinee Mnch aterial difficult impossi obtain elsewhere So report I tried incorporate I afraid I expense readability I forced eliminate local color which I would cluded I continuing travels Northwest China already completed Chinghai visit Panohan Lama which I describe later report This report written while traveling I typewriter Nanking repaired fortunately I borrow several along vegetable electric bulbs hotels where I stayed I finally completed rough reort Sinkiang which I sending MY journey Ninhsia Then I shall return Nankin roceed there Hongkong Sincerely yours A Doak Barnett NOTES ON SINKIANG PROVINCE The Mamas River northwest Sinkiang Soviet border At desolate outpost overlooking wrecked spans Great West Bride which crosses river sixteen Chinese soldiers watchful turned westward They opposite river silhouetted figures Ui military outpost unrecognized East Turkestan Republic These lonely soldiers symbols watchful waiting Both sides frontier between Sinkiang Province rebel regime fertile Valley On night August rifle shots Although bythese mysterious shots recorded latest incident unfinished history Revolt On northern crest Pei ashan Range mountains where China Outer M0molia Chinghai Muslims Chinese Cavalry Regiment patrol rassy shopes prevent enemy infiltration Through field glasses these patrols Outer Mongolian posts mountains below The atmosphere tension Mongol Chinese patrols frequently clash On July Chinese fought about Mongols According Chinese figures Mongols killed casualties Were incurred Chinese troops Approximately month later anothec patrols place lifeline leading Peitashan South These clashes latest incidents unfinished Peitashan border dAspute The River Pett Range pointe military riction present complex situation existing Sinkian international frontiers These points extremely unstable uneasy They scene major military activity however despite mysterious shots there fighting Ill border Pelt clashes develope fighting These uneasy frontiers symbolic symptomatic hough critical unsolved problems Sinkiang These problems Combine internal external factors They produced Sinkians geographical economic position ethnic diversity politie relations turbulent history These various C produced problems which affect whole provin critical border areas adjacent Soviet Union Outer Mnolia Sinkan China largest westernmost province tremendous which Northwest China Genital Asia It bordered Tibet India Afghanistan Mongolian People Republic Outer Mongolia Soviet repub Kazakhstan Kirghizia Tajikstan Chinese provinces Eansu Chinhai High mountains deserts cover large portion province square miles See Annex I All figures resources production population whichI based latest collected Sinkiang provincial Government They completely reliable figures available Running East through center province towerin range T Shan Celestial Mountains which glaciers North these mountains Jungaria expanse pebble desert bordered mountain ranges important which Altai Range North South T Shah region sometimes called Kashgaria The center region Tarim Basin desert fried lofty mountains which include Kunlun Pamir Karakor ranges In region ountains wasteland human activity generally cofine areas where water supply sufficient sustain agriculture animal husbandry NatUral precipitation exceedingly scarce lowland regions places annual rainfall aroaches Agriculture concentrated Oases located mountains along deserts These oases glacial streams which mountains swallowed wasteland The largest oases which political economic centers linked dusty motor roads Almost ariculture nourished irrigation works which water thirsty fields glacial streams small rivers province Dry farming restricted areas northwestern corner Sinkiang valleys Black Irtish Emil Rivers Wheat kaoliang barley stales other important aricultural products include cotton melons sorts variety fruits including rapes apples See Annex II figures volume roduction Intensive cultivation prevail throughout oases surprisin Seem pressure great other parts China The oases overcrowded populated contain considerable amount agricultural which either cultivated See figures Annex III could cultivated intensively Furthermore irrigation developed larger scale amount cultivable could increased considerabl See Annex IV These facts although ariculture Sinkian intensive character because concentration limited deendence controlled water sufficient areas Frovince pressure lation agricultural excessive Government officials Tihwa estimate furthermore properly developed irriati0n projects cultural Sinkian could expanded support popultion million people times present population Animal husbandry supports fewer people Sinkian agriculture utilizes larger almost total province compared agriculture economy certain r0ups includin Kazakhs Mongols Kirghiz based almost entirely Pasture distributed throughout major mountain ranges See Annex V available pastu Kunlun Mountains utilized grazing areas Altai 0untains T Shan Live stock sorts including sheep goats horses donkeys camels raised province sheep goats numerous primary basis livelihood nomadic peoples See Annex VI These nomadic roups escalator existence movin stages pastures weather pastures weather Occasionally supplement their animal husbandry small amount cultivation wheat other grains plots mountains cultivation phased harvestin takes place animals moved weather pastures The mineral resources Sinkiang subject unrestrained speculation Fom reports fabulous rches Sinkiang filtered heart Asia stimulate inations credulous optimists wanted believe The however difficult definitely whether Sinkiang resources fabulous Accordin Wang Hang shank Chief Geological Survey Office Tihwa percent province systematically surveyed prospected Chinese The Russians about eologiste province during regime Shen Shih results their findings known The Chinese surveys uncovered certain resources which noteworthy however These include reserves billion mostly coking about fifty llion mainly siderite considerable wolframite tungsten molybdenite gypsum arsenopyrite copper See Annex VIL The Geological Survey Office guesses which correct Sinkiang although fabulously valuable China potential material producer The Geological Survey Office estimates total serves amount which initic bituminous placing Sinklang third place among Chinese provinces reserves behind Shansi Shensi It estimates total reserves placing Sinkian second behind Liaonin Manchuria It estimates petroleum reserves cover square kilometers presumes contains largest petroleum reserves China It estimates province reserves cover square kilometers thesel reserves quite those several other areas China Heilungkiang Ms nchuria See Mp II distribution resources Sinkiang To however there little exploitation known resources province A scattered mines working produce Only operate large scale operated shafts which produce little Actually important utilization Sinkiang mineral resources present taking place mines northern northwestern parts province administrative districts under control See Map I Work there although production figures known Chinese Fuwen Wench wolfram tungsten mines Wusu wells Altai mines Virtually industrialization taken place Sinkian modern factories government owned At present according Provincial Commissioner Reconstruction Eohammed Imin modern factories province glass factory animal serum factory clothing factory Tihwa small factory Hotien There plans small plant paper Tihwa wells sugar plant Tihwa textile factory ProvinCial Government bought spindles Chungking years funds transport Sinkiang construction these units under The Northwest Development Company highly publicized organization under Chang Chih chung headquarters Lanchow Kansu little Sinkieng except import clothing other manufactured articles export Actual amount industry province declined recent years Russians mchinery which brought province durin Sheng regime I45 andicraft production carried fairly widely Hotien Khotan famous embroidery these native handicrafts could greatly expounded developed In short Sinkiang baCkward undeveloped It retains atmosphere which places bears faint traces Twentiet Century possesses romantic feeling frontier ancient setting which partly Oriental partly N stern There severe limitations modernization dvelop however Primitive nsportation these limitations Distancem tremendous except crushed motor highways airlines Chinese Sino Soviet touching Hami Tihwa Inin modern transport lacking There single railway province The ecOfnomic market limitation For example resources probablY suffi cient spite coking deposits scattered build steel industry there consumers enough economic present The nearest potential consumers importance Russians major steel centers Soviet Central ASia Urals Siberia Develop cement industry S nkiang would possible probably would justified because demands irrigation canal construction opposed cement interests Kansu The Irrigation Bureau itself producing small amounts cement Tibia nontheless would produce In addition Of market oppositio compet interests capital another tremendous obstacle development And addition economic factors there political social blocks economic progress It would Utopian therefore expect rapid modernization extensive development province future Sinkiang undoubtedly remain colorful economically ackward reion economy based primarily oasis griculture pastral livestock breeding The population Sinkian spread thinly over_the province Its ulatio roughly millio smallest China provinces ethnically Chinese Between three uarters population found oases southern Sinkiang majority concentrated western Tarim Basinin Administrative Districts Aksu Kashar Yarkand Khotn Annex Vlll The ethnic diversity Sinkiang result complicated history For centurie 8inkian Chinese Turkestan passage swept waves ofinvasionandmatio It iselievedthatoriginal ytheareawaspopulated which spoke Iranian other roups which spoke other types Indo Eropean lnguages Scythians Uihurs Mongols Chinese other peoples various times occupied either conquer settlers present population extremely heterogeneous The Chinese administration inkiang present lists fourteen different racial groups Uighur Kazakh Han Chinese Tunan Taranchi Kirghiz Mongol Russian Uzbek Hsipo TaJik Tatar Solon Mnchu order numerical importance Annex IX In actual however these divisions lumpe toether larer roupings The Uighurs racial group whose derives Turkic people ohern Nonolia invaded Sinkian Ninth Century AD sometime there after embraced Mohammedanism The present Uihurs probably result racial admixture speak Turki slims Many Caucasian appearance dress colored embroidered trousers Jackets leather boots They primarily agricultural people oases southern Sinkiang inhabited almost entirely exclusively They predominant ethnic Sinkian account roughly 8percent total population Their social economic organization characterized extremes differ entiation social economic hierarchy stron localism Traditionally princes mullahs religious leaders entry oases which pretty contained This pattern organization radually chening The Taranchi roughly percent population Uzbeks under percent population rouped toether Ui_hurs havin religion essentially language similar Taranchi merely special given group Uighurs migrated southern province North The Kazakhs percent total population second largest They concentrated northern districts province Althouh speak variety Turki Muslims different existence Uighurs They nomadic people yurts their flocks They proud respects militant group province Related Kazakhs similar another nomadic Kirghiz concentrated mountains south western Sinkian Although Kirhiz account percent population whole province numerically second important group southern Sinkiang The Hanese third largest total quarter million which slightly under percent population whole province They concentrated northern parts province particularly Tihwa T aceng districts although numerous latter result events years which I describe shortly The Chinese farmers merchants because ruling group quite naturally officials government workers The Tungans Chinese Muslims fifth group Racially Chinese Turkic mixture speak Chinese language Although about percent population Tungan group important government positions wealthy landowners flockowners members other groups Uighurs Kazakhs worming tenants flock herders Their influence disproportionate their numbers The Mongols total about percent province population divided three roups under Ch Ch Wang region between T Ch enghua under Min Ch Wang Wasu undernHan Wang vicinity Karashar Like Kazakhs nomadic people The other minorities which accounts percent total population mainly northern districts province They include White Russians Russia Bolshevik Revolution Hsipo Solon Manchu groups three which Manchu remnants garrisons Sinkiang Dynasty Tatars In southwestern corner province there another small minority Tajiks Iranian people sedentary belong Ismaili Mohammedanism speak Irani language Althouh existence these roups creates extremely complicated problems ethnic relationships there uniformity might appear percent population speaks Turki language another accepts uslim faith Uighurs alone constitute percent population basic problems Sinkian however caused almost percent population different racially linuistically culturally China which belongs politically complexities these problems caused existence diversities splits within percent Sinkiang arena local inter regional rivalries centuries Conflict recurring theme history thousand years durin which Chinese influence control expanded receded tidal motion In periods Chinese Empire vigorous aggressive durin Han T dynasties Chinese control pushed westward In periods limits effective Chinese control contracted Throughout period chaning relationships China almost continually confronted Sinkiang local centers power opposition outside empires kingdoms interested region China never interest reion however before China reorientation toward seacoast result impact depradations Western imperialism Sinkiang China principal front entrance Central Asia Sinkian longer China front still important still reion conflict In period modern international relations Sinkiang suddenly increased importance about middle Nineteenth Century At about British imperialism which consolidating position northern India Russian imperialism which expandin throughout Central Asia approached other geographically Sinkiang reion other suspiciously Russians established consulates Kashgar respectively began urging Chinese actively oppose British The British though supporting Manchus coastal China responded supportin Muslim adventurer named Yakb Beg reVolt against Chinese Yakub Beg native Khokand starte career dancing chief staff ambitious KhoJa leader expanding power southwestern Sinklang Soon after Muslim uprisings which throughout northwestern China however Yakub Beg usurped power leader began personal conquest Sinkiang The Russians thereupon occupied region northwestern Sinkiang played double making commercial agreement Yakub Beg occupying strategic psitions aiding Chinese troops suppress Yakub Be The British other seemed their unqualified support Yakub Be British envoy named Forsyth sineda treaty 1874o The Chinese forces under Tso Tsung however successful perhaps either British Russians expected revolt successfully suppressed Once Russians moved Ili Chinese region A preliminary Sino Russian treaty Russ valuable parts region indemnity occupation costs commercial privileges treaty denounced Pek Government Finally treaty settlin problem signed region retained Chinese evacuated Russians The Russians continued exhibit lively interest Sinkiang however British interest region declined after discovered passes India Sinkiang region difficult permit threat direction In after suppression Yakub Beg revolt 8inkiang Chinese province instead Chinese border region Control provincial regime slipped easily hands families military civilian officials accompanied Tso Tsung Sinkiang After Chinese Revolution Sinkiang broke control Central Government authorities China until Sinkiang ruled Chinese really China There succession local Chinese warlords received cognition atter expediency Chinese Government first Peking NankinE these warlords really autonomous They maintained their position playin along China Russia without getting friendly either without letting either exact concessions The administrations these local rulers characterized varying nepotism graft corruption misrule The first these warlords Yunnanese Yang Tseng member administration under Manchus assumed control For short period durin Sinklan relations Russia disturbed first Kirhiz revolt Russia Bolshevik Revolution Yang maintained neutral position refused drawn actively either Soviet Soviet When looked revolution would succeed Yang established normal relations Soviet overmaent In concluded trade agreement Soviets allwed Soviet Offices Co heros Foreign Affairs opened province The Soviet Mission luing headed successively Lierev Borckak Kolikoff fomented trouble encouraged least minor mutinies aainst provincial regime Yag continued policy getting along Russia The establishment formal Sine Soviet diplomatic relations effect Sinkiang though province following independent course first Soviet consulates opened province In 1928Yawas assassinatedadwas succeededby subordinatenamed Chin Shu Jen Kansu Although relations between China Soviet Uion sevely strained because Kuomintang Comunist split events which followed years including Sino Soviet railway dispute ManChuria Chin continued follo independent policy which would antagonize Russians He sined agreement Soviet Government permitting number trade agency Offices opened Sinkiang reducing customs levies trade between Sinkiang Soviet Uion Governor Chin however avaricious attempts increase taxes created widespread discontent Following death local prince Qomul Hami Chin prince custody tried abolish princedom stake local revolt The Hami revolt finally broke incident which Chinese collector tried marry Muslim When representatives Hami requested obtained Ma Chung Kansu Muslim general chance personal aggran dizement situatio turned against Chin As forces swept westward through province threatening Tihwa after serious shortage developed there troop people placed blame Governor Chin forced April power passed General Sheng Shih Sheng Shih nchurian educated Hsaokwan Military Academy Japan participated Koumintang Northern Expedition appointed military frontier defense Chin finally become active commander fighting against Ms He commanded provincial troops including group Manchurian soldiers Japanese Russia Sinkiang first headway against Ma advanced farther revolt broke district under General Chang Pei yuano Negotiations between Sheng Ma attempted unsuccessful At point Shen appealed Russian Russians responded coming Sinklang deeply perhaps before Probably motivated desire counter Japanese penetration Japanese puppet Mongol regime provided Ma Chung advisers Russians Sheng support which included trucks armored tanks airplanes Ma cornered chased southwest Sinkiang I spirited Kashgar Russia never heard again The Sinkiang provincial regime thereafter really joint Sheng Soviet effort The powerful mechanized Soviet Eighth Regiment moved Hami eastern approach Sinkiang Soviet capital machinery brought province Russians built roads airports Several hundred Soviet advisers attached provincial overnment Oil wells tungsten mines developed Soviet secret police cooperated Sheng secret police A provincial three started Russian advice All these developments whole province Sinkiang temporarily Russian sphere influence Then Shen complete Perhaps because events going badly Russians Europe reoriented policy toward China began arresting Russians Russians In following Soviets withdrew their troops Hami province tangible assets which brought Sheng internal policies reasonably enlightened during regime unusually conciliatory toward Chinese groups Gradually however adopted appressive methods police state antago nized groups indiscriminate arrests estimated arrested upwards persons during By hated hated Sinkiang When Sheng turned Soviet Union toward Chinese Government latter advantage opportunity moved Sheng eased ruling position August shifted powerless Centr Government Minister Agriculture Forestry In September Wu Chung arrived secretaries first Governor Sinkiang really appointed Central Government since 1911o On November revolt broke Valley The Revolt which broke anniversary Bolshevik Revolution began rebellion against disorder misrule oppression which reached climax Sheng regime It little relation Governor Wu barely catch breath before revolt began The forces backed Soviet Russia moral support Soviet material support amount which never accurately determined wiped regiments poorly equipped Chinese troops consisting about The leaders January whole region their hands revolt proclaimed establishment East Turkestan Republic proceede enlarge their military control until included latter northern administrative districts T Ashan Concurrent military action fairly widespread pogrom against Han Chinese place those regions Some estimates Chinese killed during period In early Chinese Government concerned about succession reverses Chinese forces Sinkiang sustained General Chang Chih chung Tihwa President personal representative became Governor Chang conciliatory Central Government experienced negotiators together General Chang Chun negotiating Chinese Communists hoped could peaceful Sinkian Then Russians stepped mediators The Soviet Ambassador China Appollon Petrov memorandum Foreign Minister Wang Shih chieh reporting group petitioned Soviet Consul General Tihwa Alexandre Savielieff intercede Soviet Government willing mediate China accepted peace negotiations began October between Chang Chih three representatives Group RahimJan Sabir Hodjayev Achmadjan Kasymov Abdul Nair Jure The events which followed first halting steps reach settlement pattern duplicated other trouble spots world since V J Day Weeks haglin finally resulted negotiated peace settlement A short period cooperation peace followed Then cooperation disintegrated sides claiming peace settlement inlemented other group The final result impasse The first toward appeared solution trouble general Peace Agreement signed January Chn Chih chung Cen Government threeabove mentioned representatives Of Group This agreement called popular election hsien councils which would elect hsien magistrates within period three monthso Administrative district officers chuan their assistants recommended people A provincial council elected hsien councils In addition general reorganization Provincial Government outlined According organization Provincial Commission expanded members I0 would appointed directly Central Government recommended elected representative bodies subsequently appointed Central Covernment Normally appointed directly Central Government The I0 direct appointees include Governor Chairman Secretary General Commissioners Civil Affairs Finance Chief Bureau Social Welfare Assistant Commissioners Educatio Reconstruction Assistant Chief Health Bureau Commissioners without portfolio The I members recommended elected bodies include Vice Governors Deputy Secretaries 0eneral Commissioners Education Reconstruction Assistant Commissioners Civil Affairs Finance Chief Health Bureau Assistant Chief Bureau Social Welfare Comissioners without portfolio An annex Signed granted specific concessions Of I mentioned members Provincial Commission Group although controlnc three I0 administrative districts province explicitly right choose commissioners includi Vice Covernor Deputy Secretry Ceneral Commissioner Education Reconstruction Assistant Commissioner Civil Affairs Finance Chief Health Bureau Assistant Chief Bureau Social Welfare Commissioner without portfolio The agreement guaranteed freedom religion publication assembly speech Further promised Chinese Turki languages administrative judicial organs official documents It enunciated right petition native language principle native languages should primary middle schools Chinese Turki being higher institutions learning Other points included assurances development racial cultures taxation based productive power people their ability freedom domestic foreign trade within framework existing treaties release within I0 after signin agreement persons arrested political reasons sides In addition agreement provided formation units Chinese racial roups which given orders their languages whenever possible With reard troops organized integrated National Arm The details these steps outlined separate annex The question reorganization always fundamental solution dispute involving military conflict It almost months agreement reached question Finally however June second annex Peace Agreement signed This annex provided reorganization troops three cavalry three infantry regiments total strength exceeding One infantry cavalry regiments enlisted National Army other units incorporated Provincial Peace Preser vation Corps The responsibility these troops exclusively tainin peace order three northwestern administrative districts responsibility uarding national frontiers Central Govern border defense troops The commander regiments chosen III appointed Assistant Commander Provincial Peace Preservation Corps commander regiments III troops However regular chain conmmnd follow orders Chang Chih Northwest Headquarters recently renamed Northwest Political Military Authority Sinkian Garrison Commander Peace Preservation Corps Commander The commander consulted reorganization Peace Preservation troops Aksu Kashgar stipulation replacements would local Moslems Military other equipment regiments supplied Central Provincial Governments The commander regiments required however report troop dispositions strength equipment units The signing military completed basic Peace Agreement It supplemented however Administrative Program which passed second meeting newly organized Provincial Council July This Administra Program Utopian document which promised without specifyin means which vague promises could implemented Be reiterating political pledges Peace Agreement forth fundamental financial reform extensive agricultural industrial development reaching health educational projects As basis practical pollcy meaningless During summer coalition government formed elections Were promised Although Chang Chih chung Governor reorganization filled level posts Provincial Government Han political figures The Group appointees included AchmadJan Vice Governor Abdul Kri Abasov Deputy Secretary General Rahimjan Assistant Commiss ioner Civil AffairsaSeyfuddin Commissioner Education As coalitionoverent shape other Hans appointed posts These included Uighrs Group 4isabek Aeptekin Provincial Secretary General Mohammed Imin Commissioner Reconstruction They included Kazaks Jarimhan Commissioner Finance Salis Deputy Secretary General Mongols rdenl Assistant Chief Bureau Social elfare Tungans Wang Tseng Commissioner Civil Affairs Tatar Burha Vice Governor The reorganiation satisfy however power remained hands Chinese Chang Chih chung Secretary Many General SU Hsi Commnder Sikiang Garrison Further miracle happened transform complete amiistrative political situation province discontent spread Within Government sides wanted ultimatums control obviou eould So coalition doomed failure On February I47 liberty meetlc uighur Club Tiwa petition Provincial Cvernment Two later February I Uighur emonstration several hundre place streets Tihwa A secon Ion petitionwas formlate followed third The three petitions demanded reduction provincial taxes reorganizaticm Aksu Kashar Peace Preservation Troops increase native personnel administration cessation oppression Chinese troops evaeuatio majority Chinese troops Sinkiang prohibition military purchases supplies market cessation political arrests They calle reelections areas where oppression occurred complete Judicial eorgani zation including removal chiefs Judicial OrganS release political prisoners secret police activities organization province Uighur police force In addition petitions wrathfully enounce number government officials prominent Jarimhan Salis Hatewan District Officer Tihwa Furthermore emande arrest punishment Kazakh leader Osman District Officer Ashan February Kzakh Tuan petitions presented Provincial Government On Han Chinese Tihwa These etitiens particularly drawn Kazakhs contained lists minor grievances their effect counterbalance Uighur demands counteract Uighur pressure Government place Chinese provincial authorities better bargaining position The climax sequence events Chinese demonstration Tihwa February A occurred during which Chinese Uighurs killed Achmadjan Uighur spokesman forced acknowledge emands other groups modify demands group The tension created riotin lasted finally resore martial lifted resul demonstrations petitions general bitterness among persons cocered The tension which spread throughout province temporarily eased skillfully worded ProVincial Proclamation drawn Provincial Commission under direction Chan Chih chung This proclamation which published March humbly admitted objectives Peace Program Administrative Program achieved reiterated every effort being achieve It signed Group members Provincial Commission strong impression complete harmony existed among groups participating administration On appoinnent Mesud Sabri alternate spelling Nasud Sabri Governor Sinkian announced Mesud Sabri Uighur wealthy Ili family educated military medical schools Turkey For twelve years however Central Southwest China In Chungkin CC controlled Central Political Institute considered Uighur nationalists Sinkiang completely Chinese His appointment interpreted Chinese attempt undermine Uighur nationalism working through puppet demonstrations against appointment place scattered points throughout province OnJuly Uihur revolt broke openly Turfan Shanshan Toksin oases In Turfan developed serious rebellion suppressed rapidly efficiently General Sung Hsi China ablest young generals A leaders revolt including agents taken custody Sh ortly thereafter August Group suddenly Tihwa Ining coalition collapsed completely state hostility commenced The Sinkian border sealed movement between areas ceased Since August number futile exchanges taken place between Group Chinese Government these negotiations accomplished nothingo The first Chang Chih chung Achmadjan Rahimjan September I It contained defense Chang patience conciliatory attitude It claimed Provincial Government execution Peace Agreement adherence slogan Peace Unity Democracy Cooperation achievement democratic government cntained rievances against Group including their failure implement Peace Agreement particularly military terms their unwillingness restore normal relations Provincial Government Central Government their efforts political control throughout province The accused Group being responsible massacres Chinese T Omin early demonstrations Tihwa February revolts Turfan Shanshan Toksin July riots Kashar May It further accused Group continuing secret organization East Turkestan opposing reasouably Governorship Mesud Sabri sabotaging sessions Provincial Council trying party control Provincial Government conquering Despite these accusations conciliatory Chang appealed cornon understanding based support principle national unity together amicable Soviet Chinese atmosphere existing agreements The concluded inquiring Group reopen negotiations The reply Inin October categorically denied charges Chang For example claimed Turfan rebellion spontaneous result overflowing Muslim anguish In addition asserted violations Peace Agreement Chinese alone The contained counter accusations against Chinese created situation which became intolerable More specifically accused Chinese quadrupling their military forces Sink failing reorganize Peace Preservation Troops Kashgar Aksu being unwilling treat native troops basis equality The complained Chinese remiss providin ammunition supplies Ili forces Chinese Army making continuous preparations invade Ili territory suportin bandits Osman campaigns against Ili In addition complained police personnel Sinkiang illegal arrests manipulated local elections interfered local administration The Provincial Government accused instigating Tihwa riots February fomenting racial friction expanding secret police interfering organization democratic bodies disregarding opposition people Sinkiang appointment Mesud Sabri other officials despotic methods In claimed Since Peace Agreement signed Ili Party proposed directly indirectly secretly openly Sinkiang should secede China The ended sayin Ili Group willing reopen negotiations demands These demands NI Oppression torture progressive elements Sinkiang should stopped immediately All Muslim prisoners should freed those responsible their imprisonm should punished Mesud Sabri should removed Governorship Provincial Government All articles June Agreement should fully implemented A secon exchange notes place between cember I7 February I which facts reexamined accusations defense arguments repeated conditions negotiation defined In anote written Decomber Chan point point refutation Group charges The number Chinese troops Sinkiang according actually reduce since Peace Agreement forces period doubled The asserted reorgani zation Peace Preservation Troops postponed supply military equipment troops halted because failure Ili commanders reorganize troops allow Chinese inspection Chan claimed Chinese giving military assistance Osman actual Osman had_been badly mistreated Ili Group He asserted police forces Sinkiang reorganized ecret persons still detained prison there violation constituted problem Jurisprudence politics In defense Mesu Sabri appointment argued Mesud Sabri competent governor ubernatorial elections would throughout China there reason change Sinkian prior In Chang emphasized Freedom certain limit No nation earth could allow rebellion against mother country carried citizens People freedom oppose their country Finally proposed renewal negotiations Ili Group would eliminate irregularities their territory Chinese national Chinese Turki language milita mobilization preparation voluntarily reduce reorganize their troops cease East Turkestan ovement Chinese propaganda restore communications province The reply Achmadjan Rahimjan February I48 accused Chan produc words deeds claimed there assurance promises would However after repeatin their major accusations against Chinese professed willin renew negotiations Mesud Sabri removed position Osman punished public trial people progressive elements released The mention conditions outlined Chang December As consequence Chang reply April I stated fulfillment conditions already outlined minimum Symbolic proof sincerity required before further steps could taken Since April complete stalemate silence sides These notes exchan between Chan Chih chung Group reveal issues stake present dispute notes sides mixed truth exaeration falsehood basic issues sometimes hidden The fundamental split between sides Was obscured verbiage It split political power The Group wanted achieve position predominance Provincial Government while Chinese determined maintain controllin position which already possessed The Group accuses present provincial administration Sinkiang appressive administration Some their specific accusations others partly others false Ta relevant factors consideration however seems present Chinese administration nearly black spokesmen claim It neither completely completely Tradition history confront Chinese Sinkian tremendous handicap When Central Government moved Sinkiang control first thirty years inherited Since Revolu III Sinkiang ruled corrupt oppressive warlords Chinese though Chinese Government Furthermore Chinese decades centuries before enlight Under Chinese Empire Sinkian capital officials often posts punishment misdemeanors committed elsewhere It uncommon officials accumulate personal fortunes while serving their terms remote inhospitable borderland Nepotism corrup violence recurring phenomena Few Chinese officials learned native languages concerned themselves local problems Chinese administra enerally maintained working through dominant native families particularly families Uighur promoting group conflicts policy divide The history inept Chinese Chinese misrule reached climax regime Shen Shih This heritage plaues Chinese everything Sinkian Since however Central Government seems sincere effort appoint qualified posts Sinkian Provincial Govermaent As result theprincipal Chinese leaders Tihwa present appear aware oftheir special responsibilities sympathetic minority groups trying solve Sinkiang problems peaceful ciliatory means This group works under leadership Chang Chih They formulated policies which fully implemented would really New Deal Sinkiang Their approach Sinkiang problems seems ciliation within limits Even level Chinese however there advocate force rather conciliation dthechageswhiohhavebeemadet thetop level filtered through dmAistrtion The local polie forces courts still retain people worked under Shen Shih The policy conciliation completely foreign these employ traditional handed methods dealin people The representatives Chinese grOups ppointed official positions heChineseareofvariouskinds AfsuchasYolbasat Hsniaremerepuppets Others Mesud Sabri onalists Eo uidred percent Chinese probably would neVer iagree important issues Others Aisabek Mohammednestron nationalists freely criticise short coinsof presentreto which belong category representatives aplratiOns Chinese roups They cooperating Chinese ecUSethey believe impossible alone thataohoicemstbmadebetweenChinaandtheSovietUnion andthatChina better addition there appointees Provincial Government Jarimhan erate COnissioner Finance undoubtedly popular figures inorlt groups which unfortunate choices beeause qualified positions Although there competent appointees selectedfrominorityroups Chinese severely criticised notpayin euhattentiontopopularsentimentinmntheseappoinents Ina silar arecticisedornotseleotafnonKuongpeople their Chinese appoinents Ts particularly reard Mesud Sabri various reasons frombeing popular leader Uighurs There ybesomejustificationfothiscriticism butthestvocaleiticsseto forget torigil coalition govrent Ili Group leaders appointed respoible positions governt volrily abandoned These critis overlook obouS difficulty Cheese intofview offndinmenwhoeno onlypopular leadersngthenorities tarealsoquestnablyloyaltoChi disturbedtstsghtnotbe butduringaperiod rebelliondrevolt problem The person holding local positions lower levels government Sinkiang msart identical similarto thosewho suchpositions inthe pre94 period Not Chineseclatt elections helddthe g0ntreorgization areal eression popular sentient situation where ilitecy ratherth theexeepon andere afairlyrind sociS Structeexiststssaostinevitable Theelectionswerepulated nyways those powerdiluence usuallyce sometes coivanCe local Chinese litary police ficials Ble thissortoftnwasusllylaceduontheprovincialauthorities hever ovincial veent ensure hones elecons mullahs presents topprovincialauhoreswhmyseriousproblems esudSabrsays PerhapsthebiggestproblemfacintheProvincialGoverentisthefacttt elections after goverent reorganization resulted selection Of nerous particularly position District Officer incompetent ddesirabl Thesemen whoincludereligiousleaders menofalth dothers elected because their stdin people The oveent tjust stepindreplacethemforitu16thenbeaccused ofbeidecratic other problem which plaues Princisl Goverent shortage trained prsoel Thissbecome particulrly acute attempt which partially successful bringin Uighurs other native people little education experience Administration The policy reduce Chinese personnel percent raise minority group pereonnel percent total number civil employees Government minority leaders admit there enough qualified personnel present accomplish The Commission Civil Affairs claims minority groups percent exaggera changeswhich cause difficulties The problem which policy creates exemplified Commission Civil Affairs itself Accordin Commission General Secretary formerly I4 members Uihurs Kaz whereas belong those groups Many employees Secretary General states poorly qualified result their shifted remaining employees The branches government least affected policy police force courts which remain almost entirely Chinese although Tiha about percent police force Uighurs The personnel these branches government however being among Chinese government employees appointees Sheng Shih Another hindrance efficient operation On Provincial Government disorganization caused breakdown coalition The posts departed members Group still As result number posts vacant responsibilities these carried assistants Other officials The result these facts undesirable character istics persist provincial administration despite efforts improvements Even considers question attitudes prevalent among level Chinese administrators province difficult paint picture which white black Certain attitudes changed Both Chinese Turki languages example antireligious educational discrimination certainly matter policy completely eliminated Some attitudes inherited persist however The policy divide still seems consciously unconsciously important element Chinese thinking The Chinese encourage fragmentation among Han people perhaps rationalizing arguin groups considered certain groups giVen special consideration support present applies ticularly Tungans Kazakhs under Osman Furthermore certain cultural arrogance Chinese still hangs Chinese appear doubts about their cultural superiority This arrogance tends antago other groups province Graft persists It finger specific cases members Provincial Government admitthe existence deplore One which occurs overnment funds business purposes speculation Another collection passed Provincial Government local authorities Although arrests nearly widespread claims III group might indicate there still political arrestees released A Uighur member Government estimates probably total hdred arrested legitimately seditious aitation claims political arrests still being Kashgar Turfn Personal freedom freedom press assembly partially protected sinkian complete means dtSigCoialBa wchSsueslalcurtsey estll considerable sendal HotmobproOss8beendordaOeolisOtUopi esseNCe dsocialmfomprogouli nedbytheonoialGent andSan sllwoellyaoaneduoaionddiee Thereareoyab spils province tonef which isallymode hospital Thwa pronotal capital there 0sly500hosptalbeds 1OfWhiehiretnhemlthespl Thene schools inhepr0voesbeen tneaseddur nhepasoyea theream Still0yfoenddieSoh18theoleproe luonofhorleamt theSCollege i8nhera lessonthescenicbdenonthepeop ltOUldVsberembeduhor retho8iProyolalGoyen1iGOyentorss therest styea theprovialbtted billion dolors eeeid rest8de sixteenbtlltdoll8sxupby cenFalverntsubsidie8d theprintingobaekedeuey Thiseuene dedelalilatidooneqt generaldiseono Thepries Whiehi8 foodpruetsa8tnheresefChbu rseiaOumdo8 alsoarad cessation ofeel cloudaholltboorOopFora sllofKI eroue sswol 8rtsalsooololyel TheOhtrade Kamsu usaoklenosofhecoittos n1tsupplies Theoytdo Wohappohospro4ar1isttOrthensodtaoenthose rtoseoastollydtsd bttdpoliticaltubios TsstdteSfrtConmlyetObeenohloss requested oonhe1is allooad recotdr0nhe Chinese aurtos8 AllprooalqUeasotdm Central oohllodhroushthe tfentstodttsdoledOu Thepmblofrotoenthet 1tauhotoS SSand tO0obuen ofo1tontheproeanlFaetors partfromheinvolemononlltarFpersonnelnloo lpoles whteh lreSdy nentoned arrtsonta large number8 troops 8inkian problems which points8non local people One Probleu marriage oeonomio burden T kasllms extreaO sensitive narrtaf oftrters ttdels There Seem eases Chse soldtors resptablerLe settw1 pteularlyt Theeoonoobu tCnesolifomoJ8isaos ibleinrespects Theasozpsthe sofavomt retoChnathaheyereoredtorelyprinoipallyonlooalfood The roasotnopcos Inhepa8 umopmblsOn sooases responsibleooer8 usedtheirsitionandpero speoiall duoed TheCsesuthoeseare oftieiOnbeealiperel dooltpuonnS1 amatoolessonttvth sucCess Thetrrttonproeotj heproejtOhpblyare lardereeby tOlessenthe eoonObuenOfecheese lilabor hbeultul WOh irdiii beOUlid troops thelOoalte Theproutlude8 lgereseirohoros Vadiwdfrom theUhi Yerdur oulttton okoFdss4elOoletonoftheproject Only100vo1arerLKated twhenhep8 beeeole oalWillrt20o off0riloldoueebrh diStrtbtonlstoll onehmedkllers Saonproeetsincludeaoleedfloprontlon aSUapnsfora ktlotor lfllion oldrbed Of YOFjaWaOroor01Seh theoofEUohoerehere hoCSo qUmlS Orerrights r0suppleiteSSys0F hoSonllls TChosO auhortteS 1erPOsLby 1rsoo1 pnWoh eeowhereby pumses loeal supplies ristroops Tse oomslly eerie G8e 801dlbr8 10otl sosenon hopot loosl pulonj deubd17 nas1u proso11slatte2nuos Thentlitrs1uatLon inSnktantodaytseelteaedo noosternpof theproothere reKton theerMOolboerthere8otnt prooalODOOlNeffkQposttouhrouOut oorrLowhich t8slloadsblo TheChose tlOfnotrot1 rotetns pOthe C alAosdthoW2Ao 8ohon olete1roorKazatonsonplaoo OrntzatioZ8ohofit8nSio181 three years Chinese replaced troops reinforced their total military strength Sinkiang brinin troops present contrary reports The military chief Sinkiang Commander Garrison Forces General T Chih recently succeeded Sung Hsi The soldiers which commands often called crack troops basis observation limited number places appear superior oranizai discipline morale The quality these roops leads suspect complaints levelled aainst ChineseArn Sinkiang probably natural resentment which would toward rrison forces specific abuses Arm The majority troops stationed northern province spread throughout other areas Military headquarters located points there troops every major oasis In southern Sinkian Arm composed cavalry brigades headquarters Ksshear infantry rigades headquarters Aksu Yenki Karashar respectively The overall command headquarters however located Tibia North Major military responsibility northern Sinkian falls Division Cavalry Brigade Cavalry Brigade basked other forces which include Brigade Turfan 179th Brigade Tthwa 178th Brig HamA The Division which maintains headquarters Khotubi uards Ill border 227th Brigade Suilai almost direct contact forces across Manse River The Cavalry Brigade ChSnghai troops guards Outer Mongolian border Peitashan Range headquarters Chitai The Cavalry composed Chinhai troops blocks northwestern approach Tihwa The arrison troops Sinkiang almost exclusively Han Chinese Chinese Muslims about percent Uihurs Kazakhs depend entirely military supplies dangerous supply stretching thousand miles Tiwa Lanehow All mniti0ns transported vulnerable route fleet thousand trucks least which always commission All gasoline brought Yumen wells western Kansu Not Chinese troops depend vulnerable supply scattered estimated maximum effective striking force which could mustered fight northern Sinkiang would exceed SO O00 Despite these facts Chinese military commanders Sinkiang confident their relative strength contemptuous Ili troops They claim could easily defeat ussians stayed picture prefer support present policy peaceful conciliation Neutral military observers their claims The Ili estimated contain between regular troops Chinese intellience officers believe between eight thirteen regiments seven which definitely identified The Infan eiment Anchihai Cavalry P eiment Ulan Usu under overall headquarters Wusu protect entrance Sinkian proper Ill Yalley Fortifications constructed reion between marshes Shawan T Shah foothills South Shawan considered point which Ili offensive against inkian would launched The Infantry eiment protects Wusu wells Tushantme The southern flank uarded Cavalry Regiment Tekesze In addition there three other known regimental Infantry egiment T Cavalry Regiment Ch enghua training regiment Ili Inin Behind these units however looms shadow powerful otorized Soviet Regiment which Chinese believe stayed roionustwoof after evacuatedHai The armed forces which themselves sometimes Sinkiang Deaocratie Ars reorted conscritlng trainin short three months basis which One reason Chinese reard their fihtin ability The Chinese because cannot support large basis their economic resources cause short spite Russian assistance The chief military commander reported Is Soviet educated Kirghiz conflicting reports Taranchi southern Sinkiang lsakJan commanded Soviet units which Shen Shih He reported Chinese Russian citizenship papers obeoneofthemtCompletelypro Russianmeninthe11iGroup Theajoriyef subordinate officers Uighurs It claimed however officers Soviet Slavs officers dualeltizenship paers addition Soviet advisors Asiatics Kazakstan Usbekistan attached every major Ill military It difficult obtain absolute verification these alleed facts could visit territory because difficulty racial identification seems probable Ili definitely oriented toward Soviet Union possible contains Soviet dvisors Althouh leadership Ili civil regime monopolized Uighurs mJority troops revol Kazakh cavalrymen Th Chinese front officers Sinkiag however there evidence support Situation changed widespread disaffection Kazakhs The first large scale desertion cause 0sman followers reported recently November I0 Kazakhs refused fight aainst Osman Chinese territory Chinese Chinese intellience officers Suilai claim percent troops Kazakhs while percent Uighurs prcent Mongols representa tives ether minorities If probably means Ill reatly weakened Kazakhswe backbon their fihtirt strength Military supply Tli somewhat stery Chinese intelligence officers There enough idustrialization teIto suposizeablenbersoftroops Althou someoftheiras cludin captured Chinese initial caign btedly received Top ChineSe litary authorities believe someSietlltasuppliesastillbeireceivedinlli dtheyciteas evidence ports rgees captured But reasoa Cnese playdthese assertions discreditrepots ofSoettaa artille eircrt It seems probable hever dependent Russia military supplies definitely troops ssian unifo Whatever characteristics forces maintain complete ilitary control territory Sinkian Manse River All ovement between three administrative districts under Ili regime Ill territory Sinkiangiscompletely except underground agents snggler Chinese although confident military superi ority overtIli keepin hands probably because military involvement lssia preference peaceful neoti atlons Within three years there beenmilltaryolashes other order reions inkiar beides The incidemts these regions Sarakol southestand PeitaShanin northeast directly related Revolt indire C oonuecte Very little known about Sarakol Revolt which place regina southwestern Sinkian around Tashku borders India Afghanistan So Union It started aboutAugust lasted oughly during which revolting forces threatened Kargalik Yarkand exten Kashgar oyond these faets information place difficult uncover However forein 0bserver southwester Sinkiang believes Was Of invasion revolt Xt Oplmien fighting almos entirely r0ops Soviet republics across border these troops actually antagonized TaJiksand Kirgh outhwester Sinklang troying their crops floCks He furer reion e0nletely stabilized eaceful under Chinese regime people Chinese Thetizof trouble Sarakel region eugests furtherme might diversionary incident designed distrac Chinese authoritie informant problems related The Ill Revolt In similar periodic attacks Mongolia eaellite Soviet Union Peitashan attentS Ive indirect assistance Ill Group Peitaehan mountains about miles Io I0 miles border Sinkiang Monolu People Republic The Seuthe Northeet direction highest point rises I0 eemel polnt large deser region dominates wholeSinkiang Outer ongolian b0rder strategic point because height because possesses adequate water supplie In addition flanks Haai Chi Turfan Ang Slnkiang supply Kan Chinese hands eouid trohoid capable ofseveringSinkiangfromheresteChina A ripartite agreement among China Russia Outer Mongolia aipulated China 0uter Mongolia border shouldbe emareated mntual greemont The border never formally decided hwever dispute location become critical since formal recognition Outer Mongolian independence Both Outer Mon01ia China claim Peitashan range The Chiaese insist their C valid because garrisoned region years Chinese commander Major General Han You asserts border should about north ountains The Chinese illtary autherlties Sinkiang adamant about relinquishin Peltashan range because protects supply They fearandiateattemptbytheMongolsocutthe supplylinetoSinkianbecause Outer Mongolians iment whleh could effectively because communications difficulties But Chinese chances The Peitashan Incident began June according Chinese story Outer Mongolians attack Peitashan aircraft which lasted nights resulted three Chinese ongolian deaths Between July there total IS clashes At present Mongols several positions northern slope mountains maintain companies troops north these positions company Tapusun northwest In addition airfield miles which observation aircraft These Mongol positions Chinese cavalry Regiment which mountain difficult supply which through deser between Chitai Ylun Bulak A state suspended hostilities prevails ontinu ously interrupted occasional clashes Although there evidencef close cooperationbetweenthe Ill Group Outer Mongolians there evidence local cllusion helen their treops Chinese intelligence officers Chitai state Mongols T pusun ataias friendly relations Ill troops Ertai miles while still Outer Mongolians eooperaing III Group Ashan District Al housh iaermion Che overnmen Ili Group franaineole oneiniselearalhohtheyveoisly dlsaed separatist tentions offial dealings Chinese peeeded autonus which TkesRepublic Theyveestablishedaooletelyaaisttionth their leaders intposts Th their which bears white dcrescen 8teen baekrod achieved teora pendents fromCh The three administrative districts Ill T Ashan which controlled Ining Govermaent tegether valuable Sinkiag Province They include fifth total Sinkiang workiag tungsten mines workin wells mines province The Ill River Valley often called granary Sinkiang because erile agrieulural region previnee pastureland sretohin Asha Disrict District contains grazin regions Sinkiang The population territory controlled reglm _extremely heterogeneous although leadership aistrtion Ill Group predominantly Uihur population predoauantly UighUro See Annex Xo The majority Kazakhs ooprlse percent total population The Uighurs Taranehis second third largest groups respeetlvely together percent population In addition three Ill controlled dlstriots contala members every minority province As mater terms percentage whole provlnoe these three districts contain maorlty Kasakhs T ranehis Mongols White Russians Manchus Uzbeks Taars The principal Uihur ooneentr southern Sinkian terms racial cultural roups therefore Uighur Ill Government minority govern within reion which controls The Ili Group obtained eooperatiea Uishur roups antagonized others In particular seems byappointa Kah includinOs Talilindlibek opoliioal posts oflaiveiore DisictOfficefh Assts DistrictOfficer andlibekdtheirfollera veeaethe The erare Uighurs buaresei ueaderprssiUi ThepresentIllchiefis yearoldsonofSeaenr 08bhastudentanda teacher theSetUnion riaoned SheShih airthe eakwithssta ModAoJis a11eo oftrusted Sabirodayev ssnnephdSon OfsudSabrtSeddin whoorigillyeefrKashrbutwaseduOated ssiaAbdulia lutiomwhowasedueateintheSiigCollege dothers Thereamfairly relble repostt Onlyst ofttop leaderstaloyohers Ilt 80heete8 placethefiaS highas2 vebeeo etieoere areher report8ttop leaders suchasAeJand eer8ofhe88iCot8Payo TheCheesenSial80a88e ttheIlimge Illasss nadvisersaehed0iatall levoleo None theseceVeriable peeifieen devils eonsideble credence The broad Ill Group erseems youth group Sailed Y shkilati ledbaannamedSeyll aevwhosebirhpl cewasTuranbu lived Ill eduoated Soviet Union In degreb which Group oriented toward lbsSia IIslgnlfleantperhape hattheorill legderoftheGroup adAli Terewhodheruiofbergprivily areligiousdilist leader dwano diappedfromtheeenedisbelieve derarrestinthe SovietUon There reports which significant splits existwithinhe ZI Group questionofhcloselytGroup hldwo SoeUnion It seemsaOetcea hever thattheleaee yAsttthellregis8b tostro88luee Iti8probable tttslueeisexceednot indireebualsodielyghadser toughtheeeSoviconsulatesinhemion thecitiesof T enghua The available eIdenoe inaxcate8 J despite probl8ubet 8ro88iilueetheIllgIsfollpollelea whichareprettilytio tstienther tdeolol Todateit8neither sovietizednorsocialized theiwhiiteonollsaidthe Chaefoforganization ilthehAendeaintstrative district dappently noeoiveeoonoerefpoliciesvebefolated Ingardtoreligiontheresfollowedaoletelynon policy DistriotOfficer avenebleireliious leaderd SHoJa Although socialism seems thinkin Ill leaders economic orientation Ill region itably strengthened Ince ololin Sinkiang border Before Revolt surplus produotion three zones under Ill oontrol exportedo other SOviet Stnkian surplus present Unon Furthermore natural strongest economic beenwh lusstaforanyearsbecauseoproximity convenienceoftransport andheexistence complementary economies Ilt cultural animal products materials exchange Russian manufactured Atpresenttisreportedthat usstasare supervtstntheOperationothe oldnesder Ill control aswell theendWeh utstenmes wChaothebessousesoftsteninCentralAsia addition ssisesaid obtaing largeots wheat aswellasofgolddtgsten fromIliterrito Reportsofthasorte probably othertsfor pduots Ili T engAshein ossaidtobebarelySftelentforlalneeds sotheRussiSproblyarentkinuseoft productionathe wellsinthepre revoltperiwas0 0taonth andoofhesixwells reportedtohavebeendestroyedbyfire SoChineseoimttthe eeonocally milking Ill eysttiC resultpeeitiinbasicceeeitiesisworse theretinthe Siigenthough istmostpdueti region inthe province diffiult whether there The question whether Or there between Group Chinese Conmnists ystery aspoets II regime There concrete eidenee however reveal recent editorial discussion leadin Zuing paper Demoeratle Daily whether should established would indicate existed Although facts surmises already cited hints concerning charoter regime difficult whether alanee regime enlightened oppressive Its bltterest enemies critics category which include Chinese leaders Sinkiang state flatly oppressive RussianmdonInated enough evidence prove Or disprove assertion Whatever characSer however still evokes pproval sympathy Uighursand other Han Chinese throughout inkiang To these people represents ebodient nationalistic aspirations Str ipped essentials presen Situation inkiang caused basis factors which overshadow others One Sinklang geographical position consequent iportanco great nations China Russia The other growth nationalis people native province There factors responsible rowth nationalis among native groups Sinkian One natural desire greater Another desire aintain cultural unity racial homogeneity about which Muslin groups extremely defensive Still another nnent against superiority complex Chinese rulers policy Sinieization conscious neglect native education native languages Chinese Turki dictionary compiled example Reaction against Chinese misrule which fnallbecame latolerable underShenShlb madeII ofeei lasIgtloa elealve thepkboxw he8oetiondbyprSevieagents perpsequallyasoant sbeen calle polities atraotlen attraction created allegedeullaemrted toailarracialdeultul groupswith Seeti The factor Impozant element situation Sinkian provided needed moral support minority grous SinkianE The Soviet Union since early ointern extremely hetie toward Asiatic nationalis movents addition Soviet syathp Sinkian nAnorlty roups racial affinity people Soviet Central Asia geographical proxiaty economic F urther Soviet Union created Uihurs representatives Sinkiang ineriie8 educated Sovle institution8 principally because edueational facilities elsewhere Despite attraction Of Soviet Union inkiang however heret bynoeansunanimousseatienmnonstnorttyrOups ontquestion relationswithseia Nativetioli Siiaai8 Indeeisi foresbecameof plita melal lineswhleh deprive eehesion tnthe orlty Uihur there fraatation enaeepetered intheUih Club deplctan fromuir cheer enthu tieallytthe eleageappearenelaionsatbede oapeltieal action esplitotheUihursiealeonoedtmditiolles The eonaeatlve wealthybegsalhagenellyleupbehintheChinesewho appdthin pastdeoinueodeeoiayys sethe tlelistveat Tleader oftiolistveat entheother eertmostparepresentivefeatheddle Classdfromlean labile educated Sovi Bhlon srenly eneed Sovietpagaa TheUighur eepsethetioliattaaerieally small influential group however large aoriy nationalists friddle ela88 The educated articulate spporter8 roups divorced themselves upper class baekErod tnheirauppo wlethes8 ofUifairsealthtme eatmore pssiwly Evenamoa nationalistUi there arelits Itheiolists auettheywtrooalapltalaut butthere areoisleswohepaiealarlyeorerstal wtthedtegoal etolishouldbe dwhether theyshouldwotoughCcrrelyup assistee Ch Secret SoeiuMen aeralaisprblyestluealChiaeseofficialinTa sayst Utghurttolistsfallineeops hosewho areworkiforindep donee thosewhoareworngforahhreeofaunowiththefrorkoF Che anisrati Cnese soverei theystchoose 8idesdbeeither8trenKlyprCneseorro Soviet lysis8eetobeessentllyeorre Thenrofadherentsteeachofthese Kroups varies considerably hever Sabri respons personsveconsideredhrealindependencecould intainedifachieved aarentlyisi8true lyaveryfUighurs Ielieve theoleteinde endenoe raotieal possibilityn Although difficult oealnwhattultteobjectivesofthelliGupybe itispossiblethat soofthegroupfiintotscatego Afairlylargenberofperson8canbe werkin inheprincialasratonSdthepro Soietmra Ilt territo still Stoup which forme ruledauten0bUt iswortoaehieve itstlelitie withtfrorMof Chinese sovereignS Ts grcupcleaaer rantleaderssuchasAisabeMwhiszIycdld Ctielaithere whichhesjoedbutwhsays Ielievetheheseie beertnthess IwilleatlnuetwrkferataerChlaese The situation Sinkiang frher colicated cleavages between cultural racial roupso Oae these splits involves Tuuane Chinese Mnslias There considerableaof feellng betweea Tunas ihurs Fsakhs Oher The ipert Cause Ill feeling eeonomie A great Tuans sheep landlords fleklerdsever r0uPs Of Uihurs Fsskhs The feelingbetweentheTunansandheUighurs furthermore walamedbythe killin large seals Ma Chun Yia EanaU roope andhe feeling arousedatha hasnotdiedoute result racial friction Chinese MUSlt Provincial Government ratherthanwiththenationalistmownaeat andeoohemoereliableChinese troops intheprovinceareheMaslsaysIronfrectng TheChinese iaNorthwestChinahaverebelled iuechineserule anienthepas present numbered sronest euppor Chinese adatnistration Sinkian Anotherconfusing andncertainelement intheoIIpiete inSii posltien thezs arehesli themoseoleul nrleallythe secondastotgroup intheprithee Assbeenaeniodalady theseTr livebymotheir flocks dfiliea sitslsindependently butpaseld isusedcoolly average lyathehswho T iSeabou oorteecelsdneoroem tthewealer flieeech largerner poorer yeases eflkswhichdenotbelong Theseaampvtdeashe ltvelihd mpoaionfeltereir andmWolferelohdg forfuel andlk cheesednfrfood Theirtraditiolpaernolife snbeeneged areatentinresentye althhaf aedificationsvetakenplace Asaletheynsellooftheir1 ordertobuytea sugar aeturedsloth Afftheultie ofgraatheft theirmansureldsoupplet their foodsf dtheirleadersanivenChise titles aePaChief Halengietrte additiontotheir astitles Buttheseehgeeve alted eirway remete mounta regina imolated urban iluenees The Kazakha organized tribally There three tribes Sinkiang Naian concentrated Ill District Kirel ormerly concentrated Ashan District spread Several regions including T Shan Auwak scattered unimportant groups throuhou northern Sinkian Each these three tries which supposed related through close chief called Wan Chinese title meaning prince bestowed ehlefs during Manchu period Each Kazakh tribe broken tribes In Sinktang there Kirei Naian three OUwak Each tribe leader called Taii controls Yurts A round single family The erarehy below Taii consists Okurday control yurts Z control I00 yurts Zanen control SO I0 Kunde control SO yurts The positions TalJi Oknrday Zaleng inherited lower positions Mold persons Who Sometimes chosen people sometimes inherit their fathers In dditin these leaders trlbe elder dinlser W combination Msli precept 10eal cooperation TaiJi Each tribe assembly called Maills towhichallleader sfromTaljioKuudebelong whicheteeveryyearduring theMuslimNewYeaperiodandirregularly three orfourtiee durinthereste called session In addition regular tribal hlerareh hever Kaakhe auber popular leaders Rater Hero aehie pesltion prondnenee leadership through their herolsa illtary pr0wes The popular leaders often ip0rtut powerful regular tribal leader At present leader Kirei Baord0ah The regular tribal ehief AilnWang isanineffective peekedlittlenwhoiovershadoweeven pound Ratewan Who Diatriet 0fleer Ill traet reend0us hands terrific Pie years tremendous vigor black beard heroic warrior reinds Hunnish conquerors terrorized Erasian eontinen eenturle The proud people The women edeval their skirtsandslihadge rWhichcoversthemeoletelyeeept fortheiroval routine The dress colorful lined e0vered nnets spend their rldla hrough mount Ins aahing Arti shlon ittlng 0gether In their anintoeating elireffedre fighting Thezheatthatth livetofianda theeof Revolt Joined Ill didmost fightin Ill Group Sincetttehever theyvesplit deooftheKhaIn nonthellisidedsoontheCeseside TheJoty0feNaSa onthelli dertheleaderspofzssuchasstaahJ dTalili TheNaarethelgesofhethreetswchveers Siiang oftheNaaintheSoetUalond areout auedinSiiitkelfbyheKirei oftheei desertedthe havemigratedder leaders sucha0nfrtheirAholdte pasre areas outside territo Ty touchily least uppeersofheCheesereginSii Itisdifficult seastior tance slitonthezs dtodete eausee dbtedly eographical distribution Jor helps elain eleage butotherfaotorsareinvolvt Oa foreletttheNa ssian Osman extraordinarily colorful figure career which almost fantastic During decade fought every inortant tnTolved 0aman really began fighting career durin regime Sheng Shih Between Sheng antagonized Kazakhs arresting large number Of their leaders This 0sman organize Widespread resistenCe February strule Sheng started Osman Was stron enough achieve signal success however driven Ch enghua Asha As result began January eooperatin Outer Monolians received their He headquarters Tayingkul which inside borderoOuterMongolia nrhfAshan carriedonazatherneffeotivesort realstanee aainst Shone Then September Ill arrived enghuawith 000en heoredanalliancewiththeIllGroup Shortly thereafter split Outer Mongolians November continued cooperating Ill April I On divided eompa denounced Group began aouthwar Peiashan He Coon terns Chinese against Outer Monolians Peitasha Then August launched large scale orces Ashane He captured Ch enghu middle September feroed evaeua thereafter according story Russian truekl arrived Ill troops Onalleges December reeeved emissary Outer Mongolia This eAssar nephew brought Mongol offer tosupplyhimwithmilitaryaidifbe wouldagain Oooperatewithhem Heturned offer however handed nephew Chinese authorities because enemy spite tearlal pleas sSser Oaman rationalizes decisions Co AmiS objectives believes present isarabidRUssophobe Inae ualfac however hispastmovesseemohaveeen prinrily expediency desire tOaiaain power utono Of group He cites grievances which against Ill Group serting completely Russian dominated Russian ccntr011ed reason splitting seems theytriedebrin himundercontrol ensure hisbedienceto their orders At present lives followers yurts IS Eazakha T Shah Jst south Chitai lives potentate surrounded group toant inoludin political staff Habas Bator military chief Nurga Lias Lasiha Arumkan principal suorduate mlitary leade He engaged active fighting present addition loyal suportershe controls three battalions Peace Preservation Trops eavalr assigned Chinese fores reckoned milita power influefWe exerts numbers Kazakh including those still territory All these Kazakhs uncertain aetors situationinSiakiE andthepsitionOftheshselicaestheco raelaldgroup ierrelationa region 8inkiang Burban prominent Tatar appears playin subtle Eame keeping graces sides becoming Governor compromise candidate guitar All strings Thestringscertalmlyaenotallinteatpresent Xnternational rivalries equally fundamental resentsituationSiiastherintilitproie Siiang pririly because georapcal position point where Inatiol 0daeaet anderetioler estsofteolit During century srateie other interests three Powers region These three POwers China Russia Great Britain Britain began interest Sinkiang however British Withdrawn India uraln their listenin Sinkian their COnsulate Kashar Indian ovemmen The major parties inerested province reduced China Soviet Union China interest obectlve sinkian simple Clear The Chinese Government determined mainin sovereignty province Considers elalms morally unquestionable legally ssailble The meiVem china determination issue based On history tradiion pestige tangible inerestso The Sinklan reionis Importaz rategieally itwouldbevirtuallyimpossibleforchinao defend itagai serious Soviet attack because supply problem frontier defense could probably established ueeesafully apointa farther Eaa EconOmically inkiang inanelal drain rather asset Chinese Governmet present I probable however economic potentialities province partleularly uneten influence Chinese hinkin The important concern Chinese however seems dewnse traditional malntenanee Chia prestige Russia interes Sinklan baaed number factors Eeonomleally Valley inpartleularandhewholeprovinceoa lesser extent oriented toward Sovie Union This natural because proximity particularly since eompleion Of Turk Sib ailwa Russian Sinkiang expanded rapidly reeen decades downs Between total between Sinkian Soviet Union S S O00 rubles S2 annually This trade profitable exnhange Russian manuaetred goods Sinkiaz arieultural animal products See Acnex XI Although trade profitable itcertainlyisnotvitalotheSovieUnion azdfreaacommercialpoint ofviewheSovle interest inSinkianwould seenobe simplythemalntenanee peaceful orderly regime willlnK trade freely Sovie Union A source materials Sinkiang potentially importance actually materials Sinkian which would interest Sovie Union ungsten tunen particularly important since tmsten mines northern Sinklang among Central Asia If major interest affecin Soviet policy riendly regime Im northern Sinklan present regime probably satisflea Soviet Union objectivesatleasttemporarily forapresent theonlyWorkintnstenminesand wells mines 6inkiang Ill territory Meat probably however Soviet Union interests Sinkiang economic related national security One aspect Soviet Union security problem ethnic The people Sinkiang closely related eases Identical racially people inhabitin Soviet Central Asian republics Kazakhstan Kirghlsla T jikstan Uzbekistan Turkmenia Ethnic groups overlappin national boundaries often create unstable situation which nations involved instigation trouble across border In border particularly unreliable undesirable Theleo eIlldistrimakesitparticularlyiporant I oeSoviet The threeontrivers nortestern Union stratesle Siiallfl intoleswithintheSoetboers dtheirvallsprode approach Soet This undoubtedly aerof conce totheSoetseventho ughthepossibilityofldaaekfromttqer isfaly remote Perhaps Soviet strategic concern Sinkiang however potential importance province teras future Some observers specu lated sibility Third World War oocurs United States ataeks Western Siberia Sovte Central Asia Jor 0kinawa These observers concluded probablr oorreetly Russian8 considered thisprospectandareinterestedirsly preventinganypossibilityehe establishment U S supplementary inkiaz seondl being establish Soviet bases sinkian interceptor aircrafts Air oviet Central Asia would strike vulnerab underbelly U S S R reton which become vitally important development indus trialization durin twenty years eastward migration Rio industries durin Second World War Sinkiang within bombin Jor industrial eeers gnitoorsk colexdhekeBalinduial aswellas othereralaiuslalcenters Toeltea possibleairtargetsInthefiSieCOrralspublies aulatt ofroy17llis tclude paiculrly Chent which pduced about foufifths Sevte copper paieuiarly Balsh 199producedalmosto fhofheSovietUaion sblackcopper atKaraandadelsherewehdeKazhthetrdlgest coalproducer theSOvietUnionin199 inedepositsicheontaifpeentof Sovie Union resees oilta ortchromednickel reechoes ekplaSepalatsk largeflollsatr ahugeehel combineabik dreviledcotton oilplts atChentdA Ubekis esaear Talentwchdeuzbest thetrdescopper pucerintheSovietUon thelargestvegetableoilplt Union oneofthelgestehealcinesdvolublecoals allar theFergValley inKhizta eswothe meudeposits intheU S S R dcoalesneareIsl ortagrieultul mhtne large revile faories eleotricplts 57stationsWhichtetherpruced lfofthewatererdevelopedinCenlAsia inTurn revile plate AsbadandalecheoalplantonePersGulf Alltheable which 8asedontheStrelbleaIcouldchain Tiawhile I washe several years althoughtp shoulde indicati ofeoree oviet republic mentioned In addiion SovietCentral isaJcragrtcullpruetionreionnoyforfobu cotton whole region deends eellent lnemble ratly systemdelopedinrecentyears Thesefastswouldseemtosuggestttit probablyot Sovietstegicthg dSgliesacrossoneofthe mostlogicalairapproachestothereion Seep On basis objective analysis seems likely Sinkia onsiderable security Inortanoe slight economic tahoe Io Soviet Union active policy which Russians pursued region aears confir It diffieult however deteraine U S S R leaders eourately Just important Sinklang theds present seeifie objec tives current Soviet polley Suklan FO least stron support possibly ateial support U S S R which intervened sponsored ediation forces military success Furthenore instead tntensi fring their policies penetration intothe Sinkiang eueide Ilt regime territory Russians following policy gradual withdrawal which began During regime Shen Shih Sinkian Soviet sphere influence Today Soviet organizations aotivities Sinkiang outside Ill territory although continued scale larger those ofaother foreign nation being gradually Cut There still Soviet eonsulate Sinkiang consulate general Tithes Consulate Eashgar three consulates territory active certain periods During initial ritio sages Ili revolt followed ominous policy enlisiz Soviet citizens within Sinkta granting citizenship papers large numbers native people never Soviet union In ooording Foreign Affairs Section Tibia Police Bureau Soviet Consulate General Tihwa issued citizenshippaperstoanestimated1000 personsinTih only1ofWhomregistered their citienship Chinese authorities Chinese worried about creation large group oitiaenship divided llegianoe policy etoped almost completely In Tihwa active propaand organizations Information Bureau Soviet Cultural Association which leading Chinese officials titular International Book Store still Issian Trade Mission inactive total personnel these organizations together Consulate General andtheRus sianhospital beenreducedroroughly months instead having increased Almost tangibles belonging Soviet Union Sinkiang present Sine Soviet Airline operates weekly flights between Ala Aa Hami This corporation under special Sine Soviet sined The initial capital US O00O00 divided I000 shares accordingothe Chairman Board ofDirectors eontrlbutedbyChina andhe SovietUniononaFify fiftybasis corporationwaso havebeenoperated Joint enterprise Actually however Soviet General Manager little reference Chinese The positions eiizen Board Directors three Chinese three Russians which supposedo annually years The Chairman Board Liu Tse voice nnaeent corporation Even reattn Soviet Sink appears scheduled liquidation however Chinese Government recently announced intend renew airline areement The Soviet Union simultaneous support Ill regime radual withdrawal Sinkian durin years dlffioult interpre Soviet policy objectives One interpret those objectives several alternative interpretations contain element truth Perhaps Soviet Union feels facto independence friendly northern Sinkian achieves shore therefore avoid further friction region reduein activities elsewhere province It possible Russius believe active policy unneces Sinkian whole province ultimately Soviet shere influence either asaresult success onhear native national In Sinkian consequence aCist victor Chinese Civil War Or perhaps Soviet Union fears possibility serious international tonsil cations Sinkian developin active policy uillin eveatuallt problems eoaitents elsewhere possible however Soviet Union eontewlates possibility addin entire province Siia esblished supposed borders onsider present poune Itwouldbe easyer mililyspe fortheSovietU toteSinif decision hatever specific objectives current Soviet policy toward Sinkian attitudes andactions oftheSoeUniIicontue vital factors thesit thepvce TheCheeserecognizethis dthepresentCheese poliyistoaidtaonithessnsatallcosts Thefactttintertional eolications large eSigsit should however obscure equallyortfact ofheprobls Siianaredienousdwould exist If tertiol rivalries voled The oolal queeti theSiobl saysLiuTee hlarlySoissioner thenist ofForei fairsInTa leaCheeseedthesolutiofthepbl dependsup ourperforceduriheneoreeyes Ifwe ainistraion ofSiwill eport ppoae Annexes throughVXXarebasedonInformati0containedindoumnts bneraphed Tihwa Geological Survey Office Annexes VIII through X based inormatlon prepared request Sinkian Commission Civil Affairs The population figures latest available Annex XX based statistics gathered RusSian sourees 0flies Com sioner Ministry Foreign Affairs Total Area Province square kilmaeters approx Sq Kin Tt I Little No Use Desert Arieulture Glaoler Sno eapped Mountains Fores Pient Grail Pastage SaltydFresh I0 Fore Eih Mountains withSn Onl Pasturage Winter Suer Pasture Low Mountainou Area Winter Pasture Arleulturee oasis Saline Sell Regioae __009 eNotelTtiesdertheeateryerieulte 4onotdleate areas aellyusedforaieultebuteasioh falloabread ealledmeulalRegiena Tia Ill Aksu Tah Hotien Ye Yard Administrative Distriet Area Oases Sq Ks Population Den Oases Per Sq Ks Area Culti Cultivated Cultivated rated Fields Fields Per Land Ttal Sq Mo Person average Oases Eashar Yarkand Hotien Aksu Ill Tihwa II T Yenki Ashan Totals 74767 ANNEXIV SlnkinE UillzableLand InSquareKilometersConvertedoNearesI00 Possibly Easil Mos Easily Utlizable Utilisable Utilisable drass asala Pasture Sallae Sell Area Motaous Area Paste SS Totals Figures Convered Nearest I00 High Mountainous Area Low Mountainous Area Summer Pasture Winter Pasture Cattle Sq K Kunl Meuntatns T Sha Southern Slope T Shah Northern Slope Algal MouatainS Totals Note This figure mountainous total province ANNEXVI Head OfAn_ima ainink Figures Converedoearest100 Horses Cows Camels Donkeys Gats Sheep VII Slnkian Surweyed M Resoroep Figures Converted Nearest I00 Cokin Coal Metric Tons Non Coking Coal Lead Wole Molybdenite senopite Oil Area Fields I I Sque Kilters Notet For Ziac Gypsy Copper there figures Chief TiheaGeological SurveyOffiee deserlbesem inhefollingtes Ze Gs VeW Copper Notot ANNEX VIII Sink _GeoraphiOa Distr _Uttp Figures Converted Nearest Distrlet Name Distriet Number Pulatlon Early Population Figures Figure Based Nevember Censue Earlier Surveys Controlled Diss NetIncluded Totals S_i ___Ra eial_C_oOs_i_tiOn Of P_opul Figures Convered earest I00 Population Total Areas Concentration Group Population Nmber District Ulghurs 601500 69700 Chineee Hart Tihw C Tu Tihwa City Taranehis Mongol8 Ubek H Tatk Tatar Solon Under Manehu Under Total ANNEX X Population Three Administrative Districts Under Ill Control Figures Early Reports Based Earlier Surveys All Figures Converted Nearest Total Popula Kazakhs Ughur Taranohis Chinese Mongols Tungans White Russians Manchus Includin Hsipos Ktrghia Uzbek Taters Ta S8 SO0 Solons Under Under Uer Under AUNEX XI Sinki_ang Trade Soviet Union Wool Skins Animals Pw Silk C Fr Cotton Cleth Susar Oil Pr oduete Eeoie G0S_ Rubber GoOds CoeotiO Tobacco S O00 O0 O00 rubles The being pioal because thefies for1935were reoen available Ta These figuresioate theit ofadebunotnecessarilyhe norlvol ofade Received New York I