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- Kansu Province; Northwest China
by A. Doak Barnett
NOT FOR PUDL INSTITUTE OF CURRENT WORLD AFFAIRS ADB lncDw China 0cober ailed From Nanking China Ocber Waller S Rogers Institute Current World Affairs Fifh Avenue New York N Yo Dear logers Lanchow larges population sraegic orwes China oficial capital Kansu Province andaeunofficialcapitalofewholeN9rnwes HereGoernorKuo Chi provincial administration governing 000scaered alongewierdly shapedansu corridor border inkiang border Shensi General Chang Chih maim1ns Norwes eadquarers Norhwes Political iliary Authority which ultimate amhoriy provinces Kansu Sinkiang Chinghai Ninghsia General Chang urbane inellien Say shrewd conciliatory leader repuai quarters Caina middle politics He Central Government negotiating Chinese Com muniss andalhoughapresenheholdsoneofhehighespoliti under Central Governmen apparently respec1 Communiss whica factor helping explain Norhwes provinces under authority rarely molested Communisso Although General Chang Chih plagued presen CommunisaacSsorpressure however aehas hissare ofprobloems The critical unsettled Ill Revol Peiashan Inciden Sinkiang prospec soluio In addition comfron certain problems which endemic Norhwes China One problem relations between Chinese uslims Han Chinese 0fiiciallys General Chang cautious sssers relations presen problem In actual howeer relations between uslims Chinese constituted serious problem centuries Although relations between groups rently relatively amiable existence Chinese uslim hrough iNinghsia K Chinghai political region I which definitely presen problems Chinese Central Governmen epresen uslims politically aggressive milian group region dominan provinces under General Chang authority The regimes which main1n provinces Chinghai inghsia auaoriarian local overnnens ureso They autonomous whose relations Central Governmen Chang orhwes Ieadquarers described accurately political alliance complete poliical inegraino The Chinese uslims exreaely interesting group ennic They racial mixture bining Chinese blood various uslim groups which migrated Cna centuries West various region whica between Arabia Afghanistan Some Auslias caered Eas Souhwes China mainly descen dants Arab raders reached Caina Probably major concenra1ion owever isineuslimbelinorhwesChina people blood groups which migrated China Central Asiatic roues Religiously speaking majority slims Norhwes uslims following religious aboos heuon As drinkors andheyalwaysweareirskull osquesare located where uslim settlements fesieals New Year Fas universally observed Arabic generally religious services ecclesiastical schools And generally speaking although sensitive aggressive religion uslims world Chinese uslims Norhwes allod religion appreciably diluted secular maers cultural assimilation Chinese almos complete In appearance people clearly distinguishable Chinese The skull women hoods identifying marks course facial features recognizable Their noses larger rounder ypical Chinese luxurian beards which disincve because bushy sideburns Some uslis feaUres coloration which Occidenll sarling remoe Oriental seing Within Norhwes several differen groups The group They originally sometime Cenlry amakand Central Asia 3ovie Union seled Yellow River presen Rrovincial border Kansu Chinghaio Anoher group composed Tng Hsang Bas Country uslims Kansu group somewha ethnological curiosity speak langaa which clearly engolian probably therefo The imporan group homever concentration region Sou which singleadministrativeunibisnowdividedinto severaliu often called Chinese ohammedanism homeland uslims spread hroughou Norhwes China become energetic virile poliically active gr9up whole region The Hochow uslis ancestry partially Ara mercenaries served under Chinese T Dynasty overland China somei around Century Daring recen decade years politics Kansu weredominatedbynochowuslims andapresenheleadershipin adjoining provinces Chinghai Kansu which formed January parts Kansu Province joined adjacen border erriory provided Hochow uslims reinloseieswihheir disric Sricly speaking however uslim cener within China bomghhereare definedieswiaecca Chines mslim pilrims among journey every world Vo uslim Holy Land Religious organ izatien within Cina largely regignal basis places mosque autonomy under Ahng An Aung pries heeqmivalen fullaselsewhere InheChineseuslimelof Nerthwes China applied suden priests Taere several regional ceners religious importance Sining Chinghai Chin Chi Hsien Ninghsia ochow Kansu where ranking leaders uslim religious hierarchy located Althoughiisnoreallyareligiousecca however chowis moneheless which uslims orhwes China sider revisi periodically In sense herore mnifying elemen which group lgeher The history political relations between Chinese uslims Hart Chinese violen This particularly during Century numerous uslim revolts agains Peking Governmen local representatives flared UP hroughou China The revolts orhwes imporlmn factors helping undermine already weakened Dynasty In lighof historical background presen relations Beween slims Chinese describe relatively friendly peaceful On village level appears communalism friction between groups In polilcal affairs aowever normal regions relations between Chinese minorities reversed Instead Nan Chin being poliicall dominan minority uslim minority tically dominan Chinese excep Kansu In Kansu uslims constitutelessnninepercenofheoalpopulation relegated recen years position keeping numerical impor presen economically sraegi cally imporan place provincial regime under national supervision completely replaced local uslim minority Ib hngha whereeiuslms conspire percant ofeal ulaonof90000 Cns 41prc dnNna wheeIuslsconsenly percoftepopulationo clung pronce Cnese pocal control bemorespeciic itisinthendsowocw uslimleaders Gala gdera Chinghai Ninghsia definitely desirable areas Kamsu ambitious leaders incidenal maintain close relations other hough related maintain amily Fchow alternative impr1nce placed Kansu Cen Governm In terms erriory emajor prions Chinghai Ninghsia pasral inhabited minorities neither Man uslim In Chinghai western pruvince southern occupied mainly scattering minriies agricultural uslis Chinese concentrated valleys Sining Yellow Rivers Norta Eas In Ninghsia province Wes efheHImm9unains sometimescalledheAlashanuntains erriory autonomous Special Banners ongols directly under Central Government rather prvinca administration slims Chinese concentrated small Hsien Eas Southeast province valley Yellow River These small areas intemsely culivaed irrigated agriculAral ceners power Generals Ma The regimes Chinghai Ninghsia relatively small numbers people neither would importance under normal circumstances The auTriarianism militarism aunomy inhofhesewoprovinces however makehemfmoreimporauce ineres pliically population would warrant There areagoodman sofdissimilaritybetweenhewplaces accurately described should scribed individually Pro sIdierly uslim looking member local family dynasty which Clngh Zer decades I father Ia Ch provincial chief after Chinghai province Ma Ch succeeded boher Ling Ma Pu inherited governorship uncle Pu provincial regime eficien China andoneofhemosenergetic WhilemmchofheresoChina bogged almos inevitably Civil War discouragement Chinghai aemping carry small scale nonetheless bilious evelopmen reconstruction schemes initiative Three hings almos become marks auhoririan Nuslim gremex Clngiii green saplings socky horses Tae sreels Sinig provincial capital present curious spectacle venerable bearded uslim gentlemen vying small never ending Z swaers agains house As sanita program Previncial Governmen periodically announces flies which handed auiorities everybody regardless occupation Asaconsequmce hesreesoftecityareonge cleanes srees China There black flies curran quotation being CC hndred The smooh crushed highways Chinghai lined green willow poplar saplings An intensive program planing reforestation valleys Eas Chinghai aaong verdan agricul valleys China Young farms cluster sream climb upward surrounding hills Chinghai doesn Arbor Day Arbor For For weeks Spring everyone province countryside plants trees Dring years million trees planted average trees woman child province means horse Chinese prevalent surname among Chinese uslims Chinghai appropria The Chinghai horses Chinghai cavalrymen famous China presn General PU roops among soldiers country bivouacs camps these rogps spotless soldiers themselves dressed disciplined One troops hroughom eastern districts province general atmosphere martial Other interesting features characterize Chingnai adminis Irrigation projects pushed scale which pressive considers relatively small amount cultivable available which produces needs population small surplus Within Year canals irrigating acres completed Hospitals medical facilities gradually being roduced BeforeaPu became Governor Chinghai single modern hospital center serve badly infected syphilis trachoma other diseases Now although medical facilities still pitifully inadequate Provincial Health Bureau qualified modern modern hospi maintains seven nealn Indusriali couple Chimghai Dring Sino Japanese War however General built small ories which included opera washing match making arming metal working pottery aking chemical manufacture These plants amount great Some plants been_forced close reduce scale lheir operaions since General soliciting outside echnical assis capital rolling again He rying install sewage system Sining successful ewage system Norhwes China Perhaps impressive development however field education The Provincial Governman educational facilities reduced eracy The primary scDols middle schools Cinghai enroll approxima primary schoal sudens middle suden provided school uniforms books needed eqmipmen In Sining roughly ofeoalpopulationgoes 0school Asyehereisnoinsi higher learning province bubeween sudents subsidized byeProvincial Governmen colleges niversities elsewhere The unique educational projec special schools called Kunlun chools These schools include every level Eindergar hrough middleschool Their provided needs including clothing heoreically private school system supported financia local uslim Educa ional Promo Committee ually schools receive srongmoralandinancialaupporfromeGovernor hesudenbody percent uslim objective schools Arabic required course uslims primary classes raise s1adard uslim educa In sense Kunlun Schools producing educated uslim under aegis srongly uslim Governor influenced considerable degree religiommly devou They however providing excellen education children selected studen Pu whole Governmen srong flavor ajeri imperTa illed lchow uslims named relatives Te Government appears supp0ring large trade indus monopaly hiigh provincial expenditures amounted llien CgC llarsO billion received billion Central Cvernmen subsidiea according published leans ended Chang fignares establishedr Industrial Cmpany Chinghai Cmmercial Bank rrganized respec ively The Clng governmental neoreica privaely acaallyi makes ergan conrelled Governor I spporers I prefi exporl tlides ained principally Tibetan iongol regions province iporing other acred articles Land maxes oppressively Chingnai armers ajority owner ivaors farms reasonable China appearo bequiewell The price constructive policies developmen howmar authoritarianismwch leaves veryli roomfor personal freedom In addition conscriplion poses heavy burden people Alugh regar conscrip horse soeimes followed relieveeburden small amilies Under small families allowed horse instead conscrip The penal disobeying provincial orders cking regime severm All imperan political decisions hermore madebyoneman GeneralaPu fanghimself heimpetusorchange progress entrely above raner below Nonetheless General seems enjoy considerable amoun popular support because visible impr0vemens which regime usual marks authoritarian regime consan police sraion ravel passes relatively unobtrusive presen I eresing accusations personal corruption Ievelled agains TheChinghai Provincial Government because excellen cavalry sronges regime Nor China Daring fewyears however despieisrealautonomyihasbeenworking militarily close alliance Central Governmen partly because virulen dislike Communism partly because entirely dependen Central Governmen supplies provided large percentage cavalry infantry roops Cen Governmen defense agains Communiss Voorder defense These included 82rid lvision Cavalry Brigade Brigade Inde penden Cavalry Regimen Kansu Cavalry Brigades SiGiang Although ChingDi roops usually consc basis receive excellent raining morale Their mander Gowernor brillian General Chi worshipped approaching adora uslims Chingnai The Chinghai aioned Lung Tung orsKansu really beenae dafenseforhewholeNorhwesagainse Comnunis Cenmral Governmen forces region limited And hough Couniss really imporan aacks Nor Chi victory Pingliang Summer moving South Io Shensi impor Na ionalis military successes C hinghai itself coaple Communis hered since given drubbing Eas Chinghai celebrated Long Eas China Shensi decade Hnng pound looks Chinese uslim family radiion local waich dynastic characteristics His father hsiang militaryleader ineNorhwesunder Ch Dynasty early Chines Republic During career military coander which Ninghsia Province Kansu The governors inghsia immediately aeriwas establishedasaprovince werenomembersofeamtl thidwasaFeng heolderbrotherofhepresen Governor Hmg succession The Einghsia Provincial Governmen horoughly uslim headminisra ioninChinghai however andang there reaing uslims Man Chines discrimina nonetheless riddled relatives Governor Te Secretary General uslim nameda close lative principal commanders Provincial Peace Preservation Corpsare relatives Governor chnngandaNi clmng principal military commanders regular troops under His first Tung Cavalry Brigade leader Governor cavalry second Tang heads Infantry Division leader Governor fantry Other importance alsoheldby heaclan The Division aunitinSou hNinghsia imporu military organizaiion province composed Ningnsia troops directly under Governor command under nephews aKsun Governor Provisional Infantry Brigade commanded compatriot The aclesofheHochowaclanreach througnou regime icularly military Sphere therefore hough regime various reasons seems consciously uslim Chinghai eaures Chingai provincial adminisra common Ninghsia Da imporan differences between places The differences summed oversimplified follows Ninghsia goodis quite considerably worse Chinghai In Chinghai Ninghsia regimes horiarian emphasis overal impression sider myself Chinghai order control recons rucio Ninghsiai In Ninghsia Chinghai efficiency cembined requex ruthlessness There abaexce corrmpin regime people slyly because corruption monopolized Na repulsion nearly spotless public Pu seems Ningnaia ansive reeresagien imprsive million planed Chinghai general prgailgingt iaiscensidered benqui easgcdasinChing The primary schools middle schools Ninghsia enrllmen respec gively reduced eracy schools reputation qualiy cational enthusiasm eviden Chinghai lacking linghsiao Na Hng monopoly conercial inausrial company recenly esaOlished Fu Co which neoreticall privae governmen organizaion siilar uncion Chung Co Chinghai general including Ninghsia burdensome population Chinghai The highways Ninghsia reasonably accomplishmeno considerab imporVnce roads existed region until years highways hinghai A hospital esablished Ninghsia City repuaion governmen officials Inshor hedeelopmenand reconstruction activitiesoa HAng Goernmen follow lines Chingai degree emphasis wihou success Further hemedusedbyaHng kiseemo Becompletelyarbitrary obviouso anyone alkswih common peopleinheciies countryhaheseme found highlyobjectionable people One eample indicate which Wihin every large Ninghsia Undergone complete lifting bricks A facade brick larges producers which factories owned relatives Governor constructed single buildi As result srees probably among uniform appearance small srees China They however among Ae srees China espie considerable ingenuity brick designing This complete surface ransformation urban ceners province accoplished relaCie Government simply issued series orders saing occupants buildings district would complete construction brick frens buildings The problem financing major operaion individual Every house occupan igure awayou I hecouldItinkono andeconstructionwork comldnoBefinancedou opersonalsavingsor byersonal loans house occupan could apply special loans Provincial Government Bin analysis financing projectwasshifted entirelyoeaveragecitizeninamosarbitrary wihou consideration ability authority backing provincial orders great aosolue aaese orders effec compared effect govrnaenal orders parts China where rlaion between average citizen government casual sayheleas Onengpeople ininghsia instrucedo example roads their properCy saooh This consan process stree province almos imeohe gowned Ousinessmn squatting beside urchins smoohing small spades public works projects carried Governma accomplished unpaid forced labor This certain Chinghai Ningsia gangs laborers which along roads elsewhere particularly bedrag looking group Young almes completely lacking amongnedirty raggedciviliangangs andoldfarmers manyf eards predomin One young mniform working oherlar gangs however provincial roops force involed raining military duies As beeamenionedalready hemainemphasisinaug regime placed oomrol Governor boass complete peace order prevail Commaisl province Fear hared Commism damenal almos everything Governmen appear emotions smperficial aionalizaion predilection amhoriarianism although apparently exists The proximity Ninghsia I Comnis areas Shausi imporan racers explaining overall differenceinhe characterfheinghsiaregime comparedIha Chingfmi which remoe Communis regions The elaborate system governmental control military molizaion ngsia affec virtually faces people andbohCoisinfiltration desertionoheCo almost impossible These specific echniques control mobilizaWion employe Ninghsia Governor asserts feelingly hawcontemporary China needs above Almos young drafted lifetime basis period military usefulness military service Those qualified placed regular units including vision Cavalry Brigade Provisional Infantry Brigade andheIndependenArilleryegim allowhichare nominally National Armybacually provincial roops The mobilized Provincial Peace Preservaion Corps roops All soldiers rigorous raining including strenuous calisthenics gymnastics I eimaed presen perhaps O00 belon I regulars Peace Preservation Corps units roughly every seven persons province larger percentage population Alloher bodied young enlisted Self Defense Corps heoreical limils which Ninghsia The Go vernmen estimates militiamen number They receive minimum raining including eracy instruction sedbyheGvernm forlocalguards eeryroadbridgeinhe province guarded labor gangs without remuneration The penaly military desertion Ninghsia could hardly severe nepenaly deathoredeserter saidha deserter found amily provide place monetary equivalen msles available Conscription raher crude mehods isUsuallyakenfrom hishme innemieohenigh specific examples easily ified Apparen1ly passive resis widespread mobili marion reluc cooperae Governmen fully successful dodgers Almos persons exemp suden A presen Self defense Corps being hrough intensive training course carried regular specially rained Provincial Governmen Eery citizen Ningsia possesses ideniy which carries phoograph mbprin These cards checked hroughou povince visual check finger prins sometimes amusing An iciai required anyravelormovement andiisfairo sayhahereisalmos freedom movemen province little movemena A complete survey which claim survey Cna IDrough census Been carried regularly Provincial Governmenm In oflices Commission Civil Aairs minute deail every locality vince On every single house pointed Cl every amily John Doe located noice Ao every morning bodied province A Boh civilian military masered regular meeting place The muser followed indoctrination raining session lasing anywhere minues during which instruction devoted primarily opposing ro0ing Communism Every O useolds organized reporting Each heads housenolds personnel repor Dusehold reporing additions subtractions designated member group The group mmber receiving repor changes roaion Basis The reports received consolidated passed higher auriies Administrationo justice Ninghsia swift shments severe Plogging fairly common punishmen sometimes erring public icials In Ninghsia City hardly passes axecuion carried Provincial Governmeno Price absolu rigid applied comnodi whica covers altos necessi This price prices iinghsia ively commodi scarce lerchan diver goods elsewhere farmers The proud however andwihsoejustification ofefachatnereisno blackar I surprising regime imposes Che population econon cally psychologically suppor visible siasm Solemn unsmiling always reliable indica popular feeling oward political regime signiican I expressions Ning I province which personally visited excep S hansi Aft spending hears whispered grumblings always furivelyo The Yellow River Valley inghsia agricul region The Chinese saying which Yellow Niver China sorrow places liinghsia Ex ensive irriga works hndreds years ained presen adminis farmers independen Land According icial figures ivable presen Individual holdings large farmers Figures prepared reques Land Adminis raion Breau percen farmers owner cultivators This figure seems absurd verbal eslima which I received placed figure percen plusw Despi farmers Ninghsia visible The average farmer He unassis because armed forces He often canno culiv owrmbecause lacks assistance forced labor projec Self Defense Corps A large percen produce Governen suppor uniform I however lives where peace order where Comniss Ninhsia sh2aryforces fairl successful inkeep Comanis province Despi repors excellence however despi General rgarding soldiers mandle Gommist soldiers Ninghsia roops considered ordinary people province Their weakness gauerally morale There quali formid roops enerally speaking hermore province local defense anding successe agains Communis credi hough clain credi Naionalis victory Comuniss Yulin North Shensi roops Mung relations Central Governmen analagous Pu reasons roughly In liking wiaaang however onegets theimpressiona hefeelsa personal loyaly oward Chiang K regard other leaders Central Government GeneralChanginLanchow I isinterestingonoe furermore suppor seems lukewarm alugha often supporting Li during Chinese Presidenial elec1ions summarize regimes Chinghai Ninghsia uslim China disim region simuleneously Na ionalis China The political peculiari region dangerous include generalizations China whole combina local autonomy oriarianism haidoesnoalwaysfi hepolitical which prevail Na ionalis China There presen somewha ominous signs revealing ordinary sresses srains between region Central Governmen I difficul judge signs really portentous merely emporary phenomena facis ioning because region which bears close wac_ing fundamen political resule place China indicationsasuch imminen This icularly Chinghai Chinghai which abundance relatively speaking silver bllion given Cen Governmen siasic coopera connec recen Ch inese mmneary reform GeneralaPu hasbeenpou inglikeasmallbeyforalmos amonthandaalf During aperiodehas beencompletelyin accessible closes officials I explained smile somach rouble universally known malady political The credible explana1ions curren 3ining displeased recognition received Central Governmen military particularly victories Sure unhappy abouhefailureohe Central Governmeno requests military supplies Boh criminated agains inedistribution military supplies issue rankles Sining Ninghsia City Their frsedom action relations Central Governmen severely limited however despieneirhighdegreeofaom byhefachaheCentral Governmen possible soGrce military supplies presen 1tmeo Sincerely yours Received New York