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- THE CROSSING From the Bar Lev Line to Geneva
by John Waterbury
NORTHEAST AFRICA SERIES Vol XVIII No Arab Republic Egypt THE CROSSING From Bar Lev Line Geneva John Waterbury December I would prefer respect world without sympathy sympathy world without respect Anwar Sadat October History granted Israel superiority Arabs history grant Israel superiority Arabs At P M October Egyptian forces crossed Suez Canal assaulted Bar Lev Line hundred miles along canal eastern Within Egypt better armies across canal accom panied hundreds tanks forward fense screen SAM surface missiles The Bar Lev Line seized systematically destroyed Egyptians Eight later October Israelis began operation turned course Egyptian front An armored force slipped tween Egyptian Second Third Armies northern Great Bitter Lake began destroy missile sites disrupt supplies Third Army What limited undeniable Egyptian victory trans formed indecisive stalemate The state peace prevailed June October replaced words Mohammed Hassanein Heikal editor Ahram state victory defeat The military facts situation however beside symbolism transpired Egypt President Sadat derided inside outside Egypt ahead Copyright O American Universities Field Staff Inc JW Mohammed Hassanein Heikal December always would which believed For three years cried about inevitability battle extent Egyptian students intellectuals questioned credibility international press delighted calling bluff David Hirst wrote article New York Times Sunday Magazine July entitled Sadat Goes War Again editors obligingly accompanied piece cartoon showing Sadat riding backwards camel His people hardly generous One making Cairo rounds ignorant peasants visiting first They repair popular joint known booza there pictures Nasser Sadat One peasant other Ahmad those fellows Pointing Nasser Ahmad That Gamal Abd Nasser leader revolution builder socialism God Well other which puzzled Ahmad replies I owner booza October conferred Sadat something short charisma nonetheless mantle Not untypical postcrossing reassessment President written Yussef Idris Egypt leading writers He among group hundred journalists intellectuals suspended membership Arab Socialist Union country legal political organiza February Suspension meant their right published It charged those suspended abetted leftist adventurism certain student groups having criticized regime public It Idris strongly criticized Sadat decision expel Soviet military missions summer A before October War Sadat stated ASU membership those suspended eight months earlier After crossing canal Yussef Idris wrote panegyric Sadat entitled eliverance I never before believed individual history I person alone setting Nation history people strength civilization But Anwar Sadat beyond He crushed defeat lying within resolved crossing And decision crossed canal But people crossed trans cended their submissiveness misery Left behind their humiliation shame The crossing deliverance No Egyptian seems failed understand The Crossing ushered Heikal compared Egypt crossing doubt while Musa Sabry fired euphoria first fighting wrote happily unique style Our fighters raised Egyptian flags Egypt Sinai gained God Great God Great For stopped I weeping The Egyptian letters Tawfiq Hakim appraisal after fighting stopped indecisive results The profound meaning October merely military victory material crossing Territory Israel October cease called indicated Vertical lines Egypt charges Israel seized after truce Israel Arabs block Bab Mandeb inset spiritual crossing stage stage reconstruction civilization By comparison content crossing indicated these statements October prosaic nonetheless momentous meaning Egypt Syria manifest reluctance could negotiate After Ahmad Baha Din recalled Lord Caradon author United Nations Resolution proposed Geneva talks between Arabs Israelis under United Nations auspices But Baha Din notes Arab participation conference possible prior October War Before Arabs cards negotia tions They their memoranda gitimate rights things weight international They fighting moreover become fixed world would never fight They talked using weapon unconvincing And their differences seemed important their shared interests After October War changed From physical recapture canal occupied Israel since Egypt derived dignity esteem enable repre sentatives enter peace talks Israelis Geneva Sadat Legacy Since acceding presidency following death Nasser Sadat appeared Egyptian soldiers captured Israeli exhibit Cairo skilled improviser manipu lating international internal situations month month basis He seemingly painted corner claiming decisive confrontation Israel attributed military action front Finding insub stantial thousands students demonstrated Egypt universities streets He threw Soviet military missions July without having obtained prior assurances United States would bring favorable response The major elements overall situation obvious strategy appeared likely It expected would simply provisations until there Even those thought President strategy misread objectives This marily because widely assumed basis reliable analyses Egypt credible military option The expulsion Soviet military advisors believed reduced effectiveness Egypt missile defenses least It Egypt senior officers rather urging hawkish policy Sadat warned risks military action Fu Matar astute analysts Egyptian affairs summed prevailing This soldier tells Egypt after crossing The battle without Soviet support impos sible Sadat himself knows The generals Egyptian Army vexed Soviet advisors The United States knows And Israel knows Paul Martin writing The Times concurred A recent survey which rounds Egyptian commanders shown equipment Army possession virtually unusable suspect decision Russians withhold vital spares placed jeopardy The survey which appears deliberate effort situa clear hotheads others within ranks shows airforce anything worse shape before If Egypt military option followed Egypt diplomatic option short capitulating Israeli terms whatever might Was there middle ground Yes prolongation increasingly intolerable situation peace draining country economically LE700 million billion defense expenditures advancing Egypt toward covering territories occupied Israel after There another option cautiously cated consisting intensification socioeconomic revolution order mobilize potential savings country mobili zation workers peasants students people It pointed Egyptian masses spontaneously streets protest Nasser resignation after June War demand refuse capitulate Israelis Americans Nineteen hundred sixty seven demonstrated inadequacy conventio warfare masses manifestly eager respond Such widely broadcast would undoubtedly struck responsive chord among broad sectors population However inimical Sadat large middle class emerged Army adminis tration after years statist development Going masses could construed military sense would necessitate leveling process sharing burden sacrifice might undone alliance forces which Sadat founded legitimacy Conse quently theme revolutionary option matter discreetly phrased confined student groups handful intellectuals oblique references leftist journals It distorts reality attribute Egyptian middle classes single goals motives unfair patriots wanted maintain their nation independence relatively privileged their If compromise could found would honor these objectives would accept Nasser clearly begun toward compromise before death Sadat continued effort Indeed compromise inherent situation resulting June War Although militarily crippled Egypt battle For Israel impose terms recalled Moshe Dayan pected phone Nasser after asking Israel terms would required occupation Egyptian heartland regime willing diktat Pro longed occupation administration country Egypt simply question Israel could force Egypt unconditional surrender Egypt could bargain effectively Israel until restored military poten In order rebuild Egypt militarily Nasser international gional leverage First plunge moral material Soviet Union which immediately after agreed rebuild retrain Egyptian Armed Forces Such pendency probably distasteful Nasser necessary United States openly become Israel major supplier With first deliveries Phan other sophisticated offensive weaponry United States began define means military balance Middle East In months Johnson administration throughout Nixon tenure balance meant viding Israel military wherewithal simultaneously destroy within armed forces three states likely enter hostilities Syria Jordan Egypt Only U S S R could corrected damental military imbalance wrought United States Russians refrained doing great power confrontation informed estimate Egyptian forces competent advanced weaponry The Soviet Union Arabs probably believed another round Israel inevitable necessary order toward acceptable solution However would condone military initiative Egyptians before judged ready The falling between Egypt Russians their conflicting appraisals competence level preparedness Egyptian Armed Forces appraisal controlling factor level delivered As result Nasser resign himself state negotiations settlement little economic development Simply current expenses Nasser beholden conservative states Kuwait Saudi Arabia Libya At Khartoum conference August greed compensate Egypt currency losses incurred June War million annually The leaders three countries monarchy Libya overthrown until September object Egyptian invective throughout sixties depicted feudal reactionaries imperialist stooges Egypt Saudi Arabia fought indirect Yemen between Nasser could accept their postwar handouts without eating Nasser power Egyptian Army order restore nation dignity Yet June War grace Egyptian Army suicide leader Field Marshal Hakim Amer treason trials senior officers Student worker riots winter protesting lenient sentences meted Egypt generals graphic dence depths which Army reputation fallen Not Egyptian Army credited after Ju War belief efficacy conventional warfare The growing activity prestige Palestinian guerrilla organizations founded notion unconventional tactics people sapping Israeli society within All these factors shifted attention Egypt despite remained biggest economic military power sidelines dependent Soviet Arab subsidies Nasser remain passive With benefit hindsight basic steps toward being considered beginning It clear Egyptians since United States acceptable negotiated settlement The Americans supported United Nations Resolution appendix voted Security Council which called Israeli withdrawal territories occupied result Yet month became obvious Israel preferred territory military security flimsy declarations Arab willing peace Israel withdraw lines settlement worked Palestinians Resolution viewed Israelis threatening Israel clear military enjoyed United States backing there little resolution would applied With inauguration Nixon administra President proclaimed intentions develop handed policy Middle East Nasser chance breakthrough The Israelis price equipment economic bilization continued occupation Sinai In addition situation heated sufficiently alarm United States order avoid great power confrontation bring weight Isra rapid political solution The result War Attri launched March On balance War Attrition Egyptians It bleed Israelis militarily The heavy artillery barrages across canal exchange Egyptian Chief Staff killed simply caused Israelis complete Bar Lev Line begun October They responded Egyptian action intense artillery barrages raids along canal One result going process evacuating civilian populations canal cities Suez Port Tawfiq Ismailia Port Said completed while cities themselves Summit Arab heads state December their industrial dependencies terrible Rogers Plan discussed formal beating sition adopted At Egyptian Suez The clashes attract attention United States December first articulation American Secretary State became known Rogers Plan This essentially modified version United Nations Resolution difference directly sponsored United States mention Syrian occupied territories would probably involved direct talks between Arabs Israelis The War Attrition served refocus Arab world attention Egypt conventional military operations steal little guerrillas thunder But neither process enough extricate Nasser dilemma At Rabat Minister War Mohammed Fawzi explained country military situation along Nasser argued Egypt needed substantial additional subsidies states order build machine No additional subsidies forthcoming His failure conference prompted Nasser serious thought month blican regime Libya ardently Nasserist leader Colonel Mu ammar Qaddafi On December Nasser Tripoli Qaddafi General Ga Numeiri Sudan federation Sudan Libya Egypt announced Perhaps republican Libya would attrition The Israelis Egyptians On Christmas Day undertook raids Egyptian positions canal followed throughout January depth raids Egyptian industrial sites densely populated Nile Valley Egypt defense could challenge On January Nasser Moscow emergency SAM ground missiles Soviet pilots sions valley Until Soviet Union appeared willing allow Egypt costs War Attrition which regarded advised premature without stepping level their However Israeli bombing destruction major factory Abu Zaabal Cairo indicated Israelis might planning systematic destruc Egypt industrial whose develop Russians played large Moscow Washington strongly urging Nixon influence Israeli depth raids The dismissed Rogers polemical gesture This response determined Soviet Union decision supply Egypt SAM batteries surprise United States North Vietnam received these missiles With Soviet missiles missile crews pilots Egypt stakes raised consid erably From Egypt point would United States decided press political Instead Israelis urged Americans stand Soviet challenge Israel further allow Israeli Army Soviet penetration When firmed Soviet pilots engaged Israeli pilots Nile Secretary State Rogers faded scene Special Security Advisor Henry Kis singer muttering ominously about expel Soviets Egypt The spring bloody The Egyp tians taken casualties equivalent those Six Day War Still spring SAM began their Israeli aircraft Soviet pilots depth raids diminished With equilibrium established along Suez front Nasser Moscow At convinced tenor talks could further increase Soviet military Having bagged Phantoms demonstrated Egypt combativeness United States At July Nasser announced Egypt acceptance cease willingness proceed negotiated settlement basis Rogers Plan It important remember Vice President Anwar Sadat opposed Egypt acceptance cease The logic cease negotiations could place under United States auspices growing Soviet military presence Egypt increasing credibility Egyptian Armed Forces United States would eager obtain settlement quickly In return Israeli withdrawal territories seized Egypt would prepared enter peace relations limit Palestinian mands constitution enclave state sisting Gaza West Bank Jordan River According their objectives Israelis guerrillas stood course events Israel foresaw pressure would probably forthcoming United States abandon security borders settlement Likewise guerrilla groups anticipated Egypt twisting abandon their claims creation nonsectarian Pales tinian state return refugees their original homeland The Israelis seized Egypt first hours cease deploy advanced SAM sites proof Egypt insincerity justification dragging steps toward negotiations The Pales tinians principally George Habash Popular Front Liberation Palestine decided anything possible disrupt steps being taken toward negotiated settlement The spectacular plane hijackings grisly Black September showdown between guerrillas King Hussein troops ensued The month ended death Gamal Abd Nasser intents purposes Rogers Plan Nothing achieved The Arab world divided Israel firmly anchored occupied territories before Moreover primary concern United States Soviet presence Egypt Israel stressed Washington avoid confronta assure Israel military preparedness armed forces would Time their argued eventually Arabs would terms could neither close military sustain immense costs their effort Short bringing Soviet troops field there military threat stabilized situation because there crisis there American intervention bring about settlement Moshe Dayan reflecting began state public Israel might occupied territories years before settlement could reached Sadat Strategy Nasser Rogers Plan about chance hundred succeeding Sadat herited those With Nasser death became longer Sadat Nasser cumulative prestige ceeded easily presidency because taken seriously other rival leaders Ali Sabry Zacharia Muhy Din tepidly acceptable Under those circumstances Sadat demonstrate mastery domestic arena Israelis anyone could ability decisions affecting course peace stick At sought refine perfect Nasserist strategy pulling United States process political settlement maintaining crisis situation founded threat direct resort military action The irreproachable legality Egyptian demon strated exhausting every possible means peaceful settlement This consisted under scoring Africa Europe United Nations Israel responsible blocking appli cation Resolution ability founded sided military support received United States The exhausting strategy served justify Egypt repeated conclusion alternative resort combat order occupied territories isolating United States Israel together several diplomatic uations which world including United States NATO allies stood neutrally hostilely Diplomatic isolation United States would serve practical purpose unless suitable bination rewards punishments could vised compel Americans change their position The rewards could diminution Soviet presence Egypt possibility toration normal economic diplomatic relations Arab countries lessening threat great power confrontation The ishments would semiconstant crisis situation which above rewar would denied would entail utilization Arab supplies means leverage consuming indus trial Goliaths Western Europe United States The problem Egypt control So final facet strategy became rebuilding Arab unity mobili zation Arab resources establishment unity struggle regardless political regime The Soviet Union would happy But wanted avoid confrontation United States their economic military investment Arab world order writing unthinkable Moreover Third World political arena Soviet Union could afford Egypt event hostilities renewed China would reminded developing world event Russia ideological paper tiger weather friend Just Nasser Soviet Union could effectively block ceptance Rogers Plan Sadat could manipulate Soviet military presence Egypt enticement United States without Soviets would abandon crisis Sadat strategy developed integrated whole fixed moment In rospect various pieces together advisors minds Some aspects emphasized others according international situation certain possibilities United States involve Soviet military would momentarily large Egyp thinking perhaps To pieces place process In February first month period cease nearing It widely serted Sadat wanted lapse renew hostilities undetermined level He suaded doing United States thers Soviet Union others Minister War Mohammed Fawzi perhaps combination three But easily forgotten about Sadat after outset military action crucial bring about progress One cause world forgetfulness Sadat quickly reversed ground February extended cease At proposed first toward comprehensive negotiations Israel withdraw Suez Canal Egypt undertake opening waterway Sadat intimated process peaceful relations facto recognition Israel would perfectly possible Sadat followed initiative signing April declaration Federation Arab Republics Syria Libya without sudan On Libya under militantly anticommunist leadership Colonel Qaddafi could counterweight Soviet presence Egypt Syria On other Syria never formally accepted Resolu inclusion Federation could interpreted facto recognition Sadat initiatives brought picture William Rogers visited Cairo May effort resuscitate peace Accompanied Assistant Secretary Joseph Sisco Secretary State talks Egyptians Rogers Sadat You could possibly Rogers Sisco tried convince Israelis Egypt serious Golda Meir however viewed Sadat proposals gimmick Egyptian troops across canal offered obviously unaccept counterproposal Egypt canal return partial Israeli withdrawal A similar notion vanced ultimatum November Britain France prior their armed vasion Egypt At point Rogers talks Meir degenerated shouting match upshot Rogers empty handed Sadat nothing initiative Would different Kissinger rather years later As little drama playing itself Sadat bringing domestic arena under control confronting eventually purging mildly Nasserists grouped around Ali Sabry Interior Minister Sharawi Goma Presidential Advisor Sami Sharaf War Minister Mohammed Fawzi The confrontation occurred nominally terms accord setting federation Libya Syria issue become obvious Sadat about Naguib Nasserist regime However having lopped Nasserist alliance almost Rogers Cairo believed timed purge offering United states To sucpicions allay fears Soviet U May Sadat signed along Nikolai Podgorny Soviet Egyptian Solidarity Pact ultimately little operational signifi cance Sadat understandably bitter about course events July famous pledge would decisive It because Sadat began suffer chronic domestic international credi bility Sadat going submit legislation Parliament extend several months Cairo December began indecisively In Sadat explained conditions front famous problem traction world attention Middle East Bangladesh forced military offensive planned Few believed planned anything appointed government under Aziz Sidqi prepare nation easily concluded charade We Sadat intend canal altho operation contemplated probably modest scale undertaken October Nonetheless experienced observers presumably international intel ligence community began consistently misread Sadat objectives setting themselves surprise store December conveyed message Sadat months later In India Soviets airlift military equipment subcontinent Egyptian airfields airspace transit material Were Egypt needs equally pressing Was Soviet Union encouraging exploiting situation peace Middle East order maintain position Arab world certain tactical military advantages Was Soviet Union systematically denying Egypt advanced offensive weapons preclude possibility Egypt would launch hostilities Sadat tentative answer questions wanted Russians The formation government headed Sidqi January Minister Industry cordial dealings Soviets Egyptian On February Sadat secretly Moscow discuss resumption hostilities Soviet counterparts talked applying Resolution promised It juncture Sadat began think seriously requesting repatriation Soviet missions Egypt On return Cairo stopped Belgrade Tripoli where assume Tito Qaddafi differing reasons encouraged along these lines Ele ments Egyptian Army Minister War Ahmad Sadoq outspokenly unhappy Soviet advisors prominent civilians Abdellatif Baghdadi Kemal Din Hussein Hassan Ibrahim cetera petitioned President April reduce Soviet presence country following which Ahram organized Egypto Soviet colloquium discuss relations between countries Ismail Fahmy Under Secretary Ministry Foreign Affairs particularly trenchant remarks about Soviet Union which resulted brief vacation But after momentary disgrace Fahmy became Egypt Foreign Minister after cease October The Soviets hastened little fence mending May Marshal Gretchko visited Egypt display performance capacity MIG It briefly thought Russians might ready deliver advanced craft Egypt Such situation remained changed Adding Egyptian suspicions about Soviet intentions first Nixon Brezhnev meeting Moscow commitment powers pursue dktente Dktente seemed neither superpower would allow itself drawn regional dispute might entail frontation other For Egypt message Soviet Union would never Egypt level would Egyptians ability their against Israelis They would accept imbalance state peace interests dhtente The Russians would Egypt American support On July twentieth anniversary revolution Sadat announced Soviet military missions would repatriated facilities within country brought under direct Egyptian control The initially popular civilian popula Egypt regained sovereignty Besides surely Sadat United States would Israel toward promise Soviet missions Egypt After Saudi Minister Defense Sultan Ibn Abd Aziz visited Sadat July after meeting Nixon informed Egyptians American terms Perhaps United States frustrated Egyptian hopes again initiative forthcoming Why asked Sadat until Nixon election could respond strength mandate The answer Sadat expected already working toward military venture months later Egypt military posture however clearly weakened crucial defense system called question Sadat overplayed Such considerations could prompted August announce along Qaddafi integral union Libya Soviet would established September Integral union threat stimulated Saudi concern Egypt become again militantly antimonarchical force under Nasser Did Sadat foresee Saudi Arabia would worth Egypt while pursue integral union That another question defies answer throughout before Ramadan War Saudi counterweight increasingly Egypt Sadat evidence miscalcu lated effects Soviet expulsion Egypt On October He dispatched Prime Minister Aziz Sidqi Moscow modus vivendi supplies could established The mission judged success promoted first deliveries mobile SAM missiles illustrious later About after Sidqi mission Oc tober Sadat dismissed General Ahmad Sadoq Minister War It alleged failed orders previous August carry limited operations against Israelis canal At however lieved staunchly Soviet Sadoq offering assuage feelings U S S R Hindsight again tells Sadat indeed intended fight August Before chiefs staff General Sadoq argued attack would bring United States Israel leave Egypt mercy Soviet support At point Sadat exploded famous rages He shouted I asked Israel America Russia responsibility political leadership Compounding Sadoq telling Egyptian Army equipment received Soviet Union inferior received Israel United States Such remarks could negative effects military morale Egyptians opined Sadoq should suffered disgrace treasonous behavior But Mohammed Hassanein Heikal logically charged In Ahram August Heikal claimed MIGs piloted Russians Israeli Phantoms June Heikal empha sized Nasser conclusion consti tuted proof Egypt problem equipment Soviets claimed quality pilots Whatever inner workings Sadoq affair retired Sadat former classmate General Ahmad Ismail military telligence brought Minister War It final plans large scale crossing canal first veloped What Sadat about overlooked ignored foreign press Only Anwar Beirut knowledge picked Cairo signals predicting Sadat would cabinet Al Anwar claimed Sadat convinced bring about change order upset calcula tions enemy transform defensive position Egypt offensive position One attempt Un States light Nixon landslide electoral victory November would prepared atten Middle East Hafiz Ismail another Sadat classmates former Director Military Intelligence Presidential Advisor Security Affairs Washing February The talks badly Nixon Kissinger sympathetic Egyp promises Just after talks Congress asked approve Israel additional Phantoms We Sadat incensed regarded faced behavior United States After October posited sequence events forced Egyptian leaders conclusion Egypt remaining option Recently however Arab sources confirmed decision launch major invasion across canal taken January before Ismail United States At roughly Sadat sounding Washington Minister War Ahmad Ismail Moscow result concluded reliable source termed single largest agreement negotiated tween Egypt Soviets On strength these missions Sadat dissolved Sidqi government March Prime Minis tership himself announced government total confrontation proclaimed himself military governor Egypt emergency powers Despite Arnaud Borchgrave famous Newsweek interview Sadat March which President totally determined resume hostilities observers government change interview bluff bravado Newsweek itself qualified marks stifle domestic criticism nothing regime The International Herald Tribune April reported In Washington Jerusalem Mr Sadat latest moves received studied since Israel clear force hesitate devastate Egyptians event limited The Israelis should little trouble doing The Israelis believe Mr Sadat Arab allies would event renewed fighting No prior October would dissented appraisal Sadat weathered another round student demonstrations suspended journalists writers Arab Socialist Union It appeared muzzling called adventurous would likely criticize inaction diplomatic sellout His cabinet which informed President April taken decision whether seriously Lending substance interpretations major policy developments spring First pursuing exhausting approach Egypt labored bring Middle East crisis debate Security Council occasion sixth anniversary June War Brezhnev United States round talks Nixon ditente It believed Egypt bellicose intentions would become manifest probably involving limited action along canal attract concern Security Council midst debates Nothing happened militarily July United States forced block otherwise unanimous Security Council motion calling Israeli withdrawal occupied territories Sadat wanted Egypt exhausted possible means polit settlement United States Israel ostentatiously isolated together world community blocking peace The second policy development consisted economic ouverture democratic logue hiwar dimuqrati implications Ctente Egypt The conclusions seemed DCtente light second round Nixon Brezhnev talks meant Russians would nothing unfreeze ation Middle East The wheat promise massive United States investment Soviet Union Moscow little leverage dispute The leverage United States proportionately however The stalemate could indefinitely consequent continuation enormous defense outlays growing discontent among Egyptian masses Economic ouverture could The immense currency reserves Arab producing states could channeled Egyptian economy perhaps western capital This would Egypt chronic currency shortage contribute economic growth To succeed policy would clude establishment industrial zones parallel money market conversion Egyptian pound stimulation Egyp private sector important convinc ingly stable conditions attract investors Because peace opposite reassur stability conclude Sadat would burner about range build country economically battle destiny sometime future The unsigned assessment Le Figaro August typical analysis stabilization relations among Near Eastern states promote Arab Israeli dispute Strength friendship Saudi Arabia Libya among affluent Arab states President Sadat afford luxury prolonging situation peace indefinitely The democratic dialogue launched spring under auspices Arab Socialist Union seemed elaborate staging bring about ratification masses decisions already The outcome amending Charter Sadat words certain Marxist interpretations issue document would valid until century During summer overall impressions inforced deteriorating relations between Egypt Libya increasingly cordial tions between Egypt Saudi Arabia Qaddafi openly calling cultural revolution Egypt frequently talked incompetent leader Suspicious sellout tried Egypt radical international stand appealing Egyptian masses within country advocacy cultural revolution alienated right petit bourgeois elements ardent supporters Saudi Arabia while known would invest Egypt perhaps direct proportion tance Egypt between herself antimonarch Libya Sadat secret Saudi Arabia August resulted announ cement Saudi credits billion dollars The integral union between Libya Egypt announced September 1turned looser affair which integration carried gradually Qaddafi swallowed arrangement bitterly reluctantly In attention Sadat secretly visited Syria August The hypothesis emanating experts Cairo Saudi Arabia driver It capital which permitted bargain United States position strength It could pressure front occasionally radical forces Egypt thefidayin Fatah Jordan Syria Saudi Arabia moving United States toward political solution Egypt would follow Saudi scenario exchange currency The first bilitation King Hussein Jordan Egypt Syria broken relation announced amounted peace Israel establishment Jordanian Israeli condominium West Bank Once Syria Egypt guerrillas assured Hussein Plan would dropped relations could restored Jordan With something resembling harmony among front states Henry Kissinger recently appointed Secretary State King Faysal Super Jew could perform twisting Israel other American would dared On September seeming conformity analysis Sadat Hafiz Assad Hussein Cairo announced eastern front joint command reactivated A later King Hussein released several hundred Pales tinian guerrillas Jordanian jails including Fatah number Abu Da announced Hussein Plan lowed lapse Now remained Henry Kissinger perform magic A settleme would represent great personal achieve Kissinger would protect conservative western regime Saudi Arabia whose legitimacy would profoundly questioned stalemated conflict dragged None these speculations about economic eralism ascendancy Faysal wrong overlooked Sadat refused surrender Egypt capacity initiative determined demonstrate ultimately Egypt cards Moreover Sadat about everybody spring summer would undertake major action He probably talked leaders Conference Non Aligned Nations Algiers September which incidentally another diplomatic success Egypt isolating United States Israel Hussein Faysal Yassir Arafat Fatah Qaddafi Tito Soviet warned discounted warning whatever action place would limited scope Indeed Qaddafi later claim nothing plans whatsoever Sadat credibility turned asset could commitments allies support hypothetical situation thought unlikely occur without abandoning element surprise would crucial success operation Only Hafiz Assad General Mustapha Tlas Syria detailed planning Ihsan Abd Quddus Akhbar Yom August analyzed situation manner close Sadat thinking He Israel telling world Israel alone could solve principal problems First Israel could simply occupy Suez Canal reopen shipping second permitting King Hussein allow Palestinians establish their state Jordan He Arab could because cautiousness those controlled amount would needed effect cluded whether Egypt Israel began fighting early resumption hostilities itable On September again Akhbar Yom argued order avoid repetition June Egypt better strike first In meantime Israel greeted malice aforethought revivification eastern command provoking September engagement Syrians which MIGs Palestinian guerrillas added growing tension another hijacking instance guerrillas extract terms Austria renuncia official policy allowing Soviet Jews transit Israel Vienna Israeli reprisals itable On September Sadat suspended democratic dialogue until after month Ramadan which Muslims sunrise sunset September meeting Arab intellectuals Sadat broadly hinted coming Six later third anniversary Nasser death Sadat reinstated journalists suspended ASU vious winter Shortly after Egypt announced accepted American struction Bechtel build Suez Mediter ranean Pipeline The acceptance first major United States Egyptian several years enough timing deliberately diver sionary The signals month events mixed On Sep tember Sadat addressed nation At speech There subject noticed I mentioned subject battle I purpose We enough words I thing We determined reach there effort sacrifice order attain I nothing enter details I simply liberation territory fundamental before With God carry succeed regain That people nation God There decisive years timetables battle destiny threats imminent action Sadat details refused discuss according General Ismail around September The countdown frequently announced least expected twentieth century The Course Battle The official canal crossing Badr first great battle under taken Prophet Mohammed A D President Sadat addresses People Assembly October J A Wl Mohammed Salima Ahram October Scare centerstrut figure written The Army beaten helmet dates during month Ramadan The Egyptian attack Cairo there longer effort obfuscate Egypt attacked first during month Ramadan Egyp troops attack until begun morning attack sunrise began their usual Normally during times combat Muslim soldier break Egyptian officers wanted avoid giving signal Israelis their anything unusual under The officers themselves according their informed attack cases hours advance others morning attack itself Commandos loaded planes parachuted behind Israeli lines airborne The Israelis There obvious Egyptia troop movements centrations looked Egypt normal pattern maneuvers Israeli intelligence picked information several advance attack planned P M October should information taken seriously The before attack General Sharon allowed aerial reconnaissance shots which seemed camouflaged sections bridges Egypt crossing The Israeli cabinet entrusted General Dayan mounting counteroperation It clear however there little bring would Israel aggressor Despite flurry phone calls early morning New York among Meir Kissinger Egypt Foreign Minister Hassan Zayyat New York Nixon crossing Cairo Israel misgivings decided accept first It three hours earlier expected The New Wailing Wall Ruz Yussef October One Egypt pontoon bridges across Suez Canal President Sadat crossing spark sharara analogy seems setting motion catalytic process under relatively controlled conditions igniting uncontrollable blaze From military point Sadat general staff succeeded devising offensive advantage designed largely defense One lessons drawn War Attrition according General Hassan Gridly Bar Lev Line could pounded disuse would directly assaulted taken fightingz3 A crossing canal seizing digging under missile cover emerged War Attrition ended dominate other plans summer after expulsion Soviet missions The decision taken around January launching hostilities reliably reported lowing May For unknown reasons operation postponed reactivated beginning September Throughout Sadat enormous personal gamble He known Egyptian Army better fighting force siders would deemed possible surely Sadat realized there guarantee success crossing It relies heavily judgment senior officers readiness troops cided scope timing operation Various Soviet advisors warned Egyptians while crossing could would probably attacking force could expect least casualties Those sobering prognostications Sadat accepted Failur would meant least presidency In first hours Egypt across canal about But except actual partici pants could believe happened After fighting Yves Cuau normally cautious Le Figaro October there analogy between because Israelis fighting vanced positions fronts improved training equipment whereas Arabs deficient these categories Even supposing King Hussein cides Arab allies certainly So obvious appear Cuau concluded Israelis started The Israelis started Chief Staff Lieutenant General David Elazar press conference October excessively optimistic New York Times October On The Egyptian flies wreckage Bar Lev Line E gyptian front general Egyptian armor infantry crossed Suez Canal first hours fighting destroyed driven He remain Egyptian units surrounded Israeli tanks Slipping Hebrew We break their bones As Egyptian Chief Staff Saad Din Chazli later remark Ahram December armed forces sophisticated techniques simplest tactics After artillery pounding Bar Lev Line assault teams moved across canal establish bridgeheads other They deadly SAM antitank missiles thwart inevitable Israeli armored counterattack Air strikes Israeli bases Sinai commandos parachuted behind Line disrupt Israeli efforts bring Within minutes attack however Israelis mounted their first strike continued strikes remaining three hours daylight At according General Mohammed Ali Fahmy Chief Air Defense lanes In space hours Egyptians confirmed chance neutralizing basic elements Israeli offensive capacity armor aircraft Key their success mobile SAM missiles already action Vietnam SAGGER antitank missiles It known Egypt seemed realize could Meanwhile engineers worked feverishly floating bridges across canal A major technical problem breaches earthwork embankments canal access roads equip could established The engineers borrowed technique employed construction High Aswan Dam power hoses sluice earth At first Eg yptian troops established several bridgeheads seized number strongholds Line repulsed first Israeli armor counterattacks flung pontoon bridges across canal During night assault Line continued masses equipment rushed across canal Under highly effective screen provided their mobile missile batteries Egyptians prepared first organized Israeli counterattacks extend their entire length Bar Lev Line Egyptians umbrage notion their success purely function equipment It incontrovertible Egyptians fought great tenacity bravery initial success became apparent overwhelm enthusiasm An Egyptian Army Captain Personally I think raising Bar Lev Line decisive factor SAM As troops floating surged forward sweeping obstacles their paths The God Great Allah akbar magical effect Did another officer battle God Great abolished replaced Land Sea Air General Sa Ma commanded Second Army during attack similar planation We years trenches there illness known trench sickness which people become weary argic What Training talks morale boosting everything imaginable thanks God undertook operation phrase God Great almost enough people water Once across Egyptians victims their success While Israelis initially turned their attention equally impressive Syrian thrust Golan Heights launched Egyptian attack Egypt completed three thought would The Second Third Armies entire canal depth kilometers It impor however deployed their forces large blocs continuous This Egyptians their armor across canal helped prepare Israeli infiltration after October But those first question Egyptians debated press their advantage Should seize three major Sinai passes lying kilometers canal Or perhaps strike farther Sinai toward Al Arish Elath Sharm Sheikh General Chazli cated daring initiatives decided instead consolidate Egyptian positions When around Egyptians break toward passes Israelis prepared Whatev course Egypt might followed unlikely would thrust deeply Sinai losing their missile umbrella thereby posing their lengthy supply lines While Egyptians consolidated Syrians brunt Israeli counterattack Golan front heavy raids Syria ports interior destroyed country industrial infrastructure Between October Iraqi divisions Jordanian brigade entered Syria contain Israeli counter attack October northern front begun stabilize It point Sadat permitted himself luxury basking found glory On October through wildly cheering crowds Cairo streets address equally enthusiastic gathering People Assembly His speech moderate insistence return occupied territories settlement Palestinian problem More anything Sadat speech occasion Egyptians Minister War Ahmad Ismail surrounded Vice President Mahmoud Fawzy right Presi dential Advisor Aziz Sidqi In background members People Assembly The occasion President Sadat October speech happy themselves first years jubilant excessively realistic congratulation Within Sadat speech October representatives Arab producing states their historic decision Kuwait begin monthly cutbacks production until importing states Japan Europe North America forced Israel occupied territories Thus Operation Badr elicited unusual degree solidarity among Arab states sparked process which first political weapon Better After decision Kuwait Kissinger Washingto foreign ministers Saudi Arabia Kuwait Algeria Morocco The Saudi minister Omar Saqqaf talks confident United States would press settlement He reported King Faysal Nixon request Congress billion emergency military Israel Faysal outraged unilaterally declared total embargo Saudi exports United States effective November Faysal promised embargo would lifted until Israel begun evacuate should begin East Jerusalem which hoped before Sadat succeeded through Badr forcing mobilization Arab economic military sources battle begun The Israelis unable gates Damascus pushed Syrians beyond lines several places The massive United States airlift planes equipment ammunition Israel under infiltration canal begun Even Sadat spoke October Israeli force broken through Second Third Armies northern Great Bitter Lake place known Deverswar In following during Alexei Kosygin visit Cairo force heavily reinforced began forays bridgehead destroy missile sites Egyptian airspace unimpeded Israeli attack planes The Egyptians having single comman Second Third Armies reacted glishly incursion regarding first diversionary action When became clear operation Egyptians found insufficient armor without missile screen Israeli aircraft wreak havoc Egyptian counter attacks ground While Egyptians recently begun publish details infiltratio establishment Israeli pocket impor tance clear Kosygin visit October His return Moscow probably motion precipitous towards cease On Soviet request Kissinger Moscow consulta tions Israel Shortly after return United States October Security Council voted jointly sponsored United States Soviet Resolution appendix calling cease place followed steps toward implementation Resolution Egypt Israel accepted cease Syria which planning large counteroffensive October But neither launch counteroffensive The cease shock Egyptians first smudges Sadat shining image Ihsan Abd Quddus announced gorically beginning refuse discussion cease until reasons opening eliminated I expression personal opinion merely nationalist coeur rather cause I decided regard battle Akhbar Yom October Sadat October speech himself equally forthright We prepared accept cease basis immediate withdrawal Israeli forces occupied territories We prepared immedi ately completion withdrawal attend international peace conference United Nations Ahram October The Israeli pocket perhaps reasoning Alexei Kosygin changed these stipulations consid erably reasonably suppose Egypt accepted Big Power resolution October favorable terms those above order prevent further expansion pocket Sadat explanation first Egypt fighting Israel according Dayan admission Israel running short equipment ammunition At point United States Israel rescue Egypt effect engaging mightiest nation earth engagement which Sadat admittedly little appetite Heikal published first detailed reasonably accurate account Israeli infiltration Ahram October operation possible detailed aerial reconnaissance photographs positions Second Third Armies taken United States planes October immediately handed Israelis General Ariel Sharon reactivated occasion planned infiltration against better judgment Generals Gonein Israeli commander Sinai Bar Lev responsible planning Suez front Heikal article entitled General Sharon Adventure argued Sharon Israeli position could einforced except cheating Ahram December Thus Heikal believes rumor Israeli military opposed accepting cease October merely posturing Sharon concerned determined cease bring equipment across canal expand pocket On October Israeli forces proceeded farther southern Great Bitter Lake north Suez The supply routes Egyptian Third Army still intact After cease fighting became anything intense Israelis raced southwards complete encirclement Third Army siege Suez At point looked though Israel determined force surrender entire Third Army potential humiliation would annulled Sadat gains contemplating resigning point which unacceptable Soviet Union perhaps United States In article Heikal summed Sharon adventure It shown Israel verge facing realities history adventure General Sharon delayed process Israel price delay times This tragedy General Sharon brought about thinks himself while adventurer against course history It juncture Sadat called sponsors United Nations Resolution troops apply cease Soviets heels American rejec Sadat appeal tough letter Nixon apparently telling prepared personnel unilaterally The Soviet threat bluff perfectly possible would troops Suez order preven surrender Third Army further violations cease The Americans responded famous worldwide alert United States bases important joined again Soviets sponsor Security Council Resolution appendix providing immediate dispatch international peace keeping force United Nations Emergency Force implement cease With heavy fighting neither could claim victory Enter Kissinger President Sadat Egypt entered phase which basic levers control military situation began hands others Once fighting tapered states Saudi Arabia became principal Arab actors confrontation Israel Egypt threat resumption hostilities certainly credible question supplies leading western Europe Japan adopt stances favorable Arabs Japan condemned continued I sraeli retention occupied terri tories level missions Arab world investment peacetime construction million rebuild canal cities On November nations European Common Market called Israel relinquish occupied terri tories emphasized rights Pales tinians respected All these developments course welcomed Egypt might never occurred Egypt Egypt success respect meant diminution guiding crisis towards final settlement Henry Kissinger Anwar Sadat November meeting The levers control began hands superpowers particularly those United States particu larly those Secretary State Henry Kissinger In space weeks Kissinger mystique began spread effect through Egypt At nning November Egypt Foreign Minister Ismail Fahmy spent Washington D C along Golda Meir Kis singer conducted equiva proximity talks Shortly after these talks Kissinger Cairo November within hours reached agreement President Sadat resumption principal diplomatic relations United States ambassa dorial level Hermann Eilts former United States Ambassador Saudi Arabia immediately Cairo Ambassador point proposition exchange prisoners resupplying Third Army beginning direct Egyptian Israeli talks Kilometer Cairo Suez effect Israeli pullback positions October those positions unspecified disengage entangled lines armies appendix Coming after harsh words Sadat other Egyptians reserved Un States following Israel violation cease turnabout shocked surprised Egyptians What magic performed To perfectly obvious Kissinger virtually written scenario October encouraging Egyptians stalemate could midst crisis The acquiesence Soviets American scenario assured theory would result United States wheat investments The advocates specify Kissinger could arrange Israelis allow themselves pushed Bar Lev Line particular conspiracy theory matched Israelis advanced Haim Herzog Russians masterminded whole thing given tenance outside observers Variants nuanced presented Heikal Abd Quddus Heikal spoke intimated Egypt undergone unavoidable exami nation imtihan onstrate fight Sinai other occupied territories Ahram November Until world Arabs Faysal thought Egypt trying achieve cheap victory brandishing verbal threats regain territory about which cared little Egypt demonstrated willing Sinai Moreover during crisis another Egyptian marked Kissinger assess weights protagonists toward resolution conflict In indirect sense Kissinger inadvertently encouraged round fighting Abd Quddus editorial December observed Kissinger style neither before after during crisis That being course Egypt follow would fight negotiate simultaneously North Vietnamese Abd Quddus implied tactic encourage Saudi Arabia decision limit duction sales United States There emerged Cairo those weeks fascination Kissinger Kissinger Jew For Heikal perhaps Sadat meeting minds establishment certain level trust between single minded power politi cians sincerely interested settlement Heikal managed interview Kissinger which published Ahram November The picture reasonable explaining viewpoint considerable openness I myself midst crisis representing concern United States But I reputa personal balance success rasidi shakhsy I imagined Middle East would crisis imposed itself I among those expect And added smiling In respec succeeded I recognize success Heikal argued there great difference quality United States Israel during opposed those received Egypt Soviet Union Kissinger countered saying There thing considera The United States cannot today future allow Soviet achieve major victory decisive victory against American Salah Jahin Ahram November Kissinger Peace O K I Nobel Prize What going Abd Quddus sometimes comes close charging Jews congenital perfidy fascinated Perhaps strongest force aiding Nixon bringing about solution Kissinger And Jew No accuse Semitism hostility Israel He however Jew concerned about future Jews their protection avidity Zionist order Kissinger small triumph Cairo triggered caustic tongues Had Egypt crossed canal simply piece paper agreeing start talks leading Israeli pullback lines October canal We Egyptian lives Soviet renew relations United States As Egyptians encircled Israeli encirclement Third Army elements armed forces allegedly eager crack Israeli pocket The Israelis however began received their prisoners Egypt talks Kilometer nowhere violations cease daily As pundit remarked talks sandwich course there would Geneva To Geneva Egypt Syria needed mandate their fellow Arab states Israelis least negotiate settlement President Boumedienne Algeria emerging prominent Arab statesmen hosted Arab League summit meeting Arab heads state began November Algiers Before began Heikal characterized Ahram November The important Arab summit meeting history For first conference action atmosphere action faced necessity action But already fragile unity forged began King Hussein foreseeing recognition conference would confer guerrilla groups refused attend foreign ister instead Presidents Bakr Iraq Qaddafi Libya refused attend predicted would sellout Abd Quddus accused Libyans Iraqis opening pockets ranks Arabs Akhbar Yom November Yet conference since fated conference December Rabat Palestinian Liberation Organiza PLO recognized legitimate repre sentative Palestinian people Egypt Syria given green light Geneva their Israelis Meanwhile Faysal despite Kissinger personal blandishments turned firmly Salah Jahin Ahram December On Way Geneva Conference The entitled Military Solu leaping Political Solution His attach6 marked Egypt For brief after Algiers appeared Egypt methodical march toward Geneva broken After several meetings between Gen erals Ya Israel Gamassi Egypt progress toward disengagement forces towards Israeli pullback October lines On November Egypt announced talks suspended It thought Egypt might refuse Geneva unles Israel honored point Kissinger prior condition It could although known certain General Chazli ponent issue perhaps attack Israeli pocket At removed without explanation December replaced Chief Staff General Mohammed Abd Ghana Gamassi former Chief Operations It seems probable suspension talks Kilometer another Kissinger strategem least reported Cairo newspapers It believed Kissinger light Israelis insistence nothing substance could debated Geneva until after their elections December suggested tions disengagement pullback carried opening Geneva conference Israelis prepared concessions conference positive Kissinger Cairo December Syri Lebanon Israeli prisoner Egyptian hospital Jordan Israel details opening conference December The question prisoner exchange between Syrians Israelis became major stumbling block Syrians refusing prisoners their names until later phase negotiations The Israelis threatened Geneva basis opening postponed until December Then Syrians announced would attend conference Palestinians would conference showed Israelis seriously interested settlement To compound situation Israelis sounding reminiscent couple gener ations Arab refusal Zionism clared would never negotiate Palestinian murderers others thought PLO should attend conference The Sadat strategy looking little frayed about edges still Ismail Fahmy Egyptian delegation Geneva The other Arabs there members King Hussein Jordanian delegation On Decem Secretary General United Nations Kurt Waldheim opened conference No longer expected magic results quick tions wondered anything really changed since October The doubters should mistake something close miracle occurred Middle East Operation Badr could successful Israeli prisoners Egypt militarily could disaster The changed everything bridgehead established Conclusions Consequences What truly remarkable unfinished undeniable success President Sadat achieved coping economic military constraints Nasser Through trial error Sadat great conspirator lousy planner Egyptian artfully stumbled catalytic event Middle East conflict settling Let those achievements First Sadat brought Arab world level unity purpose seldom achieved before The President systematically followed policy conciliation since demonstrably proving willingness cooperate Arabs regard political regime Symbolic Sadat meetings King Faysal He kissed King shoulders beard Ya Amir minin 0Commander Faithful Arab world looks Nasser vowed pluck Faysal whiskers The unity Sadat brought about fragile Unity Libya being letter Iraq pursuing typically maverick keeping Jordan Syria Palestinians together common ground require something close legerdemain But those break Egypt Syria those countries fundamental going The second major Egyptian success bring weapon supplies directly question evacuation territories The exchange simple territory importing nations promote putting pressure Israel United States This message doubly symbolic ministers Sheikh Yamani Arab representative servative monarchical Saudi Arabia Abdesslam Belaid Berber representative radical republican Algeria delivered several weeks travel through western Europe United States There general awareness gambit overplayed worldwide economic cession which country would sheltered could ensue The decision Arab exporting countries taken fittingly Christmas Day begin raise production again evidence sense tolerable limits More aware posted price forced barrel Iran tained auction crude poorer developing nations would close The posted price suggested Arabs December still stunning barrel On separate issue Egypt appears remarkable gains Economic ouverture rather being paralyzed October War given boost In their found confi dence solidarity peace there funding building development front states Egypt Syria ordan Noteworthy Kuwaitis formally agreed foreign currency component Suez Medi terranean Pipeline European states Japan eager Arab announced their ingness several jects Sadat planned The increased Israel diplomatic isolation Europe stand following Israel rightly regarded inimical Virtually African states exception South Africa broken relations Israel At point there states world prepared recognize provisional Palestinian ernment there states having diplomatic lations Israel As anything called whole concept Israel security borders Fighting advanced positions fronts Israel suffered casualties vastly superior least those sustained It turned Arabs could strike first Israel unable administer lightning mention three neighbor states armed forces Even Sharm Sheikh whose seizure Egyptians regarded Israelis casus reduced nificance blockade imposed trance Red Sea Bab Mandeb Straits The blockade possible Ethiopia Israel firmest friends Africa broke relations Tel Aviv during In Ethiopia might allowed Israelis Red Sea facilities break Arab blockade possibility Ethiopian objections blockade removed Heikal summed middle Ahram October We prove Israeli theory security taken Israel wishes prove sound And heart armed struggle point In hostilities beyond became clear Israel taining sufficiency equipment munition since Indeed Israel highly dependent United States obvious would impossible future United States major means leverage Israeli behavior That dependency moreover compounded enormous monetary curred Israel result In general sense showed Arabs could fight Israel could destroy there change situation Israel could expect repetitions October War every years All European nations Turkey ception Portugal refused allow United States transit material Israel through their bases As intensified Japan NATO nations stances variance United States positions lihood these small cleavages Euro alliance would exacerbated contin uation crisis Here again Sadat could claim success begun force United States realize national security interests fundam ental respects compatible Israel maximum military territorial goals Through shortages specter power confrontation Sadat trying United States toward handedness proclaimed policy Finally least Report concerned demonstrated limits dktente Before pointed Egypt Middle East which Nixon Brezhnev reached agreement The confirmed point One Egyptian problem Americans always tried predict Soviet moves simple gaming terms function manipulation power factors threats rewards But while Soviet Union avoid confrontation cannot afford abandon cause revolution national liberation Third World without losing credibility The downfall Allende Chile immediate vance Soviet action Middle East More confrontation Soviet Union fears being associated unjust settlement Its major ological power interests independence economic development Third World wheat deals The West consistently loses sight these priorities October things their proper perspective The Egypt years deepening despondency entire nation given impression suffering trench sickness It immeasurable boost Egyptians sense honor respect It however facile depict latter manifestation quaint obsession Arabs their honor image The fought things Sinai salve wounded sense machismo As several Egyptians pointed another phase century struggle against foreign occupation fired Egyptian nationalist movement which Egyptians since British invaded their country Sadat managed current nationalist legiti become least awhile major figure After October Sadat first became Egypt again force reckoned NOTES Dr Yussef Idris Khallas Ahram October Gala1 Kishk Crisis Egyptian Thought Ramadan War Sayyad December Musa Sabry God Great Akhbar October Al Ahram December The following newspaper announced formation preparatory mittee arrange conference paper centennial discuss reconstruction Arab civilization other Arab intellectuals Ahmad Baha Din Geneva Israel likely behavior Ahram December Fu Matar Rusia Nasiria Masr Mmria Dar Nahar Beirut The Time London December Martin writing moment Sadat decided resuming fighting large scale event months Primarily monthly Talk L Avant Garde Katib The Scribe Another Egyptian Marxist Mahmoud Hussein succinctly presented fundamental irreconcilable options faced Egyptian leaders since See La lutte classes Egypte Maspkro It interest version method which Egypt Soviet An initial accord stipu lated payments would Egyptian currency After Nasser death changed again See Fu Matar It widely believed among Egyptians explicitly stated Heikal since Johnson acces presidency United States policy Arab world predicated downfall Nasser This because Johnson lobby Nasser volvement Yemen representing determination Arabian peninsula Gulf controlling world major reserves The United States Israel worked secret Nasser means military operation would humiliate Egypt Nasser would forced resign thrown Egypt military capacity neutralized years The result June War It cently recalled Akhbar Yom October Secretary State Dean Rusk group Congressmen June This great West In interview Hawades Beirut Egyptian Vice President Hussein Shafai Nasser essence July Mohammed Fawzi arrested tried after May showdown between President Anwar Sadat Ali Sabry In November Hafiz Assad brought Syria Federation about later moved toward settlement civil south Numeiry Sudan Hafiz Assad former Syrian Minister Defense power deposing radical Ba party ruled Syria since February For fascinating account confrontation Fu Matar Ayn asbaha gumhuria sadat What become Nasser republic Sadat Dar Nahar Beirut See Sayyad November General Ismail dismissed Chief Staff Nasser following brief Israeli occupation Red Sea island Shadwan January He replaced General Sadoq Cited Le Monde November See Ihsan Abd Quddus We learned their riences errors Akhbar Yom November Heikal interview General Ismail aldhram November Sayyad November General Sa Din Chazli Chief Staff claimed battle drawn months before crossing Ahram December See Eric Rouleau La chance Le Monde November See Qaddafi interview Eric Rouleau Le Monde October Eric Rouleau claims D Day probably August military preparations October begun September Le Monde November Cf General Ahmad Ismail Ahram November Heikal backhanded compliment Israeli intel ligence fascinating article Ahram December Al Ahram December Al Gridly Secretary General Ministry War General Gamal Mohammed Ali Army Corps Engineers following details Bar Lev Line It kilometers million It strong points kilometer tervals It protected earthworks whose height varied between meters At points separated canal meters barbed fields Below ground level housed multistoried conditioned rooms armed artil mortars machine etcetera built stand direct bombs pounds Al Ahram December Egyptian generals reported People Assembly December about military details crossing Verbatim reports published Ahram December 11and It striking ports mention Soviet Union Galal Kishk Sayyad November Al Ahram December General Ma suffered heart attack after eight fighting subsequently appointed Assistant Minister War See General Andrk Beaufre Le Figaro November General Beaufre manded French paratroopers Suez invasion November See Eric Rouleau Les dkdales operation Badr Le Monde November King Hussein nominally Assad Sadat September Jordan could important future given inadequate force The venerable Palestinian nationalist Suleiman Nabulsi claims Hussein purposely Jordan underarmed refused Soviet offers armed forces See Eric Rouleau Le Monde October See J C Guillebaud Retour Goshen Le Monde November Drew Middleton Israelis gains between cease fires New York Times October See instance Bernard Margueritte Les Americains encouragk Egyptians A reprendre combat Le Monde October Abd Quddus wrote explicitly September Akhbar Yom Kissinger convinced political solution political achieved tensifying crisis needs settlement The title article The American Jew solving matter Kissinger caveat confirmed reports Washington See instance Anthony Thomas U S Offi cials Israel losing Europe blocked airlift The Times October The occasionally tortured ambivalence Egyp tians about Judaism Zionism never graphically depicted during crisis In issue Akhir Sa November circulation illustrated weekly articles appeared The first M Shahin entitled This Man Pro fessor In Shahin visit Harvard attend conference organized Kissinger The article lauded Kissinger courtesy hospitality intellect organ izational sense It recalled approvingly Kissinger worked kitchen serve guests modest Cambridg apartment Following article short story Mustafa Sa A Bloody Tragedy It starts follows This happened Damas around first occurrence It happened frequently happen again other countries Jew slaughters Christian Muslim child order blood making bread their feast See Dr K Mideast Gamble Newsweek December Qaddafi highly critical letter Sadat cerning talks Kilometer subsequently ambassador Cairo See Le Monde November Not Iraq Algiers December announced would unilaterally increase produc because cutbacks hurting United States Only nationalization companies withdrawal Arab assets western banks would Almost blueprint postwar reconstruction cellent article Abdullah Tariqi In Order Sharpen Oil Weapon Ahram November See instance Gamal Uteifi International Changes their Effects Talk Vol October APPENDIX I TEXTS OF RESOLUTIONS ON THE MIDDLE EAST October Following Texts joint United States Soviet resolution Middle East United Nations Security Council Resolution adopted Novem Joint Resolution The Security Council Calls parties present fighting cease firing terminate military activity immediately later hours after moment adoption decision tions occupy Calls parties concerned start mediately after cease implementation Security Council Resolution parts Decides immediately concurrently cease negotiations start between arties concerned under appropriate auspices aimed establishing durable peace Middle East Resolution The Security Council Expressing continuing concern grave situation Middle East Emphasizing inadmissibility acquisi territory lasting peace which every state security Emphasizing further Member States their acceptance Charter United Nations undertaken commitment accordance Article Charter Affirms fulfillment Charter ciples requires establishment lasting peace Middle East which should include application following principles Withdrawal Israeli armed forces ritories occupied recent conflict Termination claims states belliger respect acknowledgement sovereignty territorial integrity political pendence every State Area their right peace within secure recognized boundaries threats force Affirms further necessity For guaranteeing freedom navigation through international waterways For achieving settlement refugee problem For guaranteeing territorial inviolability political independence every State through measures including establish demilitarized zones Requests Secretary General designate Special Representative proceed Middle East establish maintain contacts States concerned order promote agreement assist efforts achieve peaceful accepted settlement accordance provisions principles resolution Requests Security General report Security Council progress efforts Special Representative possible APPENDIX I1 TEXT OF UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTION Adopted Security Council October The Security Council Recalling Resolutions October October Noting regret reported repeated viola tions cease noncompliance Reso lutions Noting concern Secretary Gen report United Nations military servers enabled place selves sides cease Demands immediate complete cease observed parties return positions occupied hours G M T October Requests Secretary General diate increase number United Nations military observers sides Decides immediately under ority United Nations emergency force posed personnel drawn states members United Nations except permanent member Security Council requests Secretary General report within hours steps taken effect Requests Secretary General report Council urgent continuing basis state implementation resolution Resolutions Requests member states extend their cooperation United Nations imple mentation resolution Resolutions APPENDIX I11 Text Secretary State Henry A Kissinger letter United Nations Secretary Gen Kurt Waldheim disclosing Israeli Egyptian agreement Middle East November Dear Mr Secretary General I honor inform govern ments Egypt Israel prepared accept following agreement which implements Article United Nations Security Council Resolu Article United Nations Se curity Council Resolution The agreement follows Egypt Israel agree observe scrupu lously cease called UN Security Council Both sides agree discussions between begin immediately settle question return October positions framework agreement disengagement separation forces under auspices UN The Suez receive daily supplies water medicine All wounded civilians Suez evacuated There shall impediment movement nonmilitary supplies The Israeli checkpoints Cairo Suez replaced UN checkpoints At Suez Israeli officers parti cipate UN supervise nonmilitary nature cargo canal As UN checkpoints estab lished Cairo Suez there change POWs including wounded It agreed parties meeting under auspices United Nations commander usual place Kilometer Suez Cairo agreement provide implementation I would grateful would appro priate steps insure meeting Saturday November other mutually convenient representatives parties appropriate steps We intend announce publicly agreement New York Friday November Best regards Henry A Kissinger