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- Parliament Versus The Executive In Afghanistan: 1969-1971
by Louis Dupree
SOUTH ASIA SERIES Vol XV No Afghanistan PARLIAMENT VERSUS THE EXECUTIVE IN AFGHANISTAN Louis Dupree Radio Afghanistan October broad announcement Prime Minister Nur Ahmad Etemadi giving results second elections since Consti tution effect1 ending tenure Central Advisory Election Commission The Commission served which issued three thousand separate cisions including approval qualifications thousand candidates sideration official challenges before during after voting Because reaching powers CAEC headed Supreme Court Justice Dr Wahid Hoqoqi reputed limited political ambitions conveniently limited scruples selective effect wakil representative elected Wolesi Jirgah Lower House Shura Parliament Whatever selective process however failed bring office wakil eager bidding establishment On contrary delinquent about attending sessions Parliament generated major constitutional crises forced Prime Minister office King known wanted action least minimum number pending bills The postelection skirmishing developed teresting deviations routine accusations bogus voting ballot stuffing In candidates claimed victory The first Parwan Province north Kabul finally fielded Authenticity Accreditation Committee Senate Meshrano Jirgah which named after opening Parliament The committee awarded September Ali Ahmad Bayani incumbent until automobile accident May The second challenge Zabul Province resolved Supreme Court after provincial courts different rulings The Supreme Court Baz Mohammad incumbent To knowledge neither these cases basis decision public The Lower House thirteenth Parliament scheduled preliminary meeting October lacked quorum members A similar problem quorum plagued twelfth Parliament The Constitution Article Internal Procedures Law specify Wolesi Jirgah meets seven months general sessions Sunday Monday Tuesday committee Wednesday Thursday Saturday leaving Friday Muslim Day Prayers According schedule twelfth Wolesi Jirgah should about times general session times As turned frequent failure produce quorum encouraged active minority wakil twelfth Parliament about control perhaps stultify would better government activity branches launching series investigations government activities various committees H The thirteenth Wolesi Jirgah convened October behind schedule wakil They elected Abdur Rashid Pul Khumri District Baghlan Province Provisional Copyright O American Universities Field Staff Inc LD President carrying forward tradition awarded office oldest member House Abdur Rashid years oldest member Wolesi Jirgah served tinuously since ninth Parliament tenure which included participation Loya Jirgah Great National Assembly which proved Constit The first important business Lower House accreditation wakil Election Accreditation Authenticity Committee should forma because elected members already accredited Cen Commission should accept royal family executive branch government The Committee comprised wakil provinces nomadic delegate elected caucuses vincial delegates preferred automatic approval Not until November pleted certifying membership whereupon Lower House unanimously proved report The accreditation period merely boondoggle provided bring wakil Kabul acquainted since Parliament But valuable wakil fighting executive failed needed legislation On appointed month before accredi tation completed King Mohammad Zahir Shah convened houses thirteenth Shura The October His Majesty fifty sixth birthday On King appointed Abdul Hadi Dawi elected Sena Kabul Province President Senate twelfth Parliament A known journalist diplomat Dawi spent political views earlier career In Afghanistan seldom stigma tached record The Wolesi Jirgah interrupted prolonged accrediting wakil order elect ficers On October Lower House elected President Speaker government candidate Dr Mohammad Omar Wardak former Minister Interior wakil Central District Wardak Province Of votes ceived twice nearest opponents Wardak backed government though unsuccessful candidates Mohammad Ishaq Osman member lineage royal family appointed leader Ittehad Melli National party middle proroyalist Over Wolesi Jirgah elected additional fficers Among First Deputy President Abdul Ahad Karzai Popalzai Pushtun Dand District Qandahar effective parliamentarians Lower House Second Deputy President Sayyid Shah Naser Naderi Sayyid Kayan powerful conservative political religious leader Ismailiya Shi First Secretary Sayyid Mobin Shah Central District Hilmand The these responsible recording ceedings plenary sessions tioning Secretariat which employs about clerks messengers fixers Meanwhile Prime Minister Etemadi Cabinet caretaker government pending appointment Cabinet accord Article Constitution There about intensive speculation about would Prime Minister about composition Cabinet Most thought Etemadi would replaced He expressed genuine personal concern about summer Paris cover nervous exhaustion It assumed would passed because King would prefer offer refused But King invite continue Prime Minister Etemadi accepted He together relatively young Cabinet members whose average They included members major ethnic groups Pushtun Tajik Hazara Qizilbash holdovers Appendix A Dr Abdul Kayeum Second Deputy Prime Minister Minister Education served previously Minister Communications Minister Interior Transitional Cabinet Dr Mohammad Yousuf during which Con stitution being Dr Kayeum appoint welcomed among intelligentsia students reputation thinker active reformer His helping control antigovernment demonstrations October Minister Interior either forgotten essed Dr Kayeum would become figure months ahead Cabinet tried moving Although efforts lacked coordination least Ministries notably Finance Public Works Education moved independently The Wolesi Jirgah November considered proposed guidelines coming confidence Etemadi Cabinet Only point accepted broadcast entire proceedings Radio Afghanistan The jected points Cabinet changes shall consent Parliament Minister designate should personally complete financial assets Prime Minister designate pledge nothing violation Constitution Points three voted necessary under Constitution point cause wakil possi bility having perform later On November Prime Mini designate presented Cabinet policy statement Lower House Etemadi speech lowed vitriolic debate broadcast Radio Afghanistan The precedent radio Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal November enough presentation debate approval Lower House When Etemadi succeeded Maiwandwal there three speeches November Since almost every village Afghanistan least transistor radio opportunity wakil speak directly constituency encouraged flowing discourse In speech8 started weeks debate thirteenth Parliament Etemadi phasized positive unspectacular achievements tewardship These included modest internal sociopolitical economic develop external nonalignment In aside destiny people Pushtunistan through plication their right determination It reference still unsettled point Afghans problem status Pushtun tribesmen living Pakistan Durand Line He announced slogan government would watam padshah religion country Within minutes after Etemadi began speak voices Wolesi Jirgah began drown dispelling notion thirteenth would totally subservient government conservative subservient After minutes gavel pounding while broadcast faded censorship Etemadi sound tired resigned physically politi cally finished statement presented Cabinet The proved marathon speech making during which wakil spoke mainly disparagement previous Etemadi government invariably ending thought His Majesty knows I approve government policy The daily sessions lasted about A M P M before after which business government performed Cabinet Ministers designate through speeches The caretaker government Ministers seldom bothered their offices government officials lower echelons listened least speeches The broadcasts during Ramazan annual month sunup sundown ticed throughout Muslim world Radio Afghanistan people something their minds their bellies Major themes speeches included smuggling corruption nepotism schools hospitals provinces increase number through better planning implementation development programs imports luxury goods restrict imports goods which compete local products tories established under Private Investments Law incre wheat production exploit natural resources country Most speakers dealt generalities points already covered Etemadi speech November The usual You neglecting Pashto guage culture speeches heard first contingent northern Turkic speakers Uzbak Turkoman repeatedly charged discrimination practiced against their peoples Pushtun Afghans Turkic speakers controlled govern Even Persian speaking Tajik north mixed considerably Turkic speakers often speak mixed Dari Turkic expression these sentiments Only handful leftists particularly Babrak Karma1 Districts Kabul Hafizullah Amin Paghman District Kabul attacked talis imperialists warmongers Vietnam Several conservative wakil counter attacked Islamic nonnationalist thinking leftists eighth sessions Babrak followers attempted floor rebut The majority wakil however agreed statements would germane confidence debate Even Babrak delivered written excellently cuted speech several wakiI heckled Shut Babrak We writes stuff Babrak major leader Parcham leftists generally thought Soviet probably simply Afghan lutionary rather revolutionary program Whether hecklers meant mouthpiece Afghan government friendly power clear Rahim Shayda Maimana District Faryab minute oration beautifully livered The recitation received enthusiastic ovations His delivery harked village councils which consider local problems where orators poets compete Shayda delegate question Afghanistan postu nonalignment foreign relations His purposely ambiguous poetry observers considering question OK which Wakil Abdul Rauf Benawa Minister Infor mation Culture Maiwandwal Cabinet minded Etemadi November would resign produce results Where resignation Etemadi answered question acceptance speech December Appendix B excerpts Another wakil asked How there after listen truth about Few however seriously questioned sonal integrity Etemadi What celebration Ramazan broadcasts parliamentary debate little government accomplished Afghan istan another experiment democracy Not countries ceedings fully aired The wakil recognized medium means solidify backing their constituents Each numbered grievances awwal duhum sehum first second third But confronted specific measures implement demands especially increased government revenue through direct taxation income property wakil always backed The result charges counter charges ordained because His Majesty King appoint Etemadi again On December wakil present voted Etemadi Cabinet policy against Etemadi speech delivered before counted model acceptance speeches Appendix B excerpts He asked eration legislative branch order realize practical demands delegates He gently reminded wakil however decades would before Afghanistan could achieve modest number goals lined during fortnight He dramatically asked wakil fight against corruption vowing begin campaign moment under Several wakil squirm uncomfortably their comfortable seats Responsing wakil Benawa attack gestion promise resign Etemadi counterattacked indirection Because Benawa Minister Maiwandwal Cabinet The Shura Parliament buildings Etemadi revived number charges against Maiwandwal thereby keeping alive personal marred relationship these major Afghan political figures Was acrimonious debate waste I think Nothing could accord national character Afghan culture It tradition ended jirgah All heard holds barred loyalty group above loyalty religion country proved stronger personal attacks Etemadi generalized attacks prior government More given exercise would needed Afghanistan legal political parties As wakil called constituents heard through voice Repeti inevitable absence party spokes present collective views One lesson debate demonstration importance politically oriented students Many nonliterate iterate simply inarticulate wakil delivered speeches prepared university students Student involvement political which government Afghanistan adapt consequences alienating students inviting their violent reaction Apart whatever substance debates should educational benefits public Etemadi Cabinet royal family The possible educational aspects performance could several questions If relatively ections parliamentary debates continue would constitutional facade become political reality Would Prime Minister govern forgo retaliation targets insults Would legislative branch aside habitual inaction ahead vigorously The immediate answers became hearteningly apparent Confusion orderly process become pattern ecutive branch joined legislative branch failure The result government suffered virtual paralysis The Thirteenth Parliament A Study Legislative Slow Motion The thirteenth Parliament recessed December after having accredited membership elected officers appointed committees opened breach between executive legis lative branches would obvious session The wakil began trickle Kabul March second session could assemble quorum early March almost April managed plenary meetings accomplished absolutely nothing August recessed The items unfinished legislation inherited twelfth Parliament closer Those reason record beyond Shura plement Shura enacts Who terpret light Constitution Until Afghanistan legalizes political parties perhaps between Parliament executive makes sense tries defend least define position Nevertheless Afghans would legislature started legislate ecutive execute judiciary adjudicate The session accomplish start something approaching cause cllzbre Member Parliament Abdul Razak wakil Katawaz nomads either victim political badger Razak Sulaiman Khel Ghilzai Pushtun forum Lower House vitriolic personal attack Etemadi Some consequence lured Inter continental Hotel Afghan woman friend There surprised police parently intent preserving moral climate Kabul The government never prefer charges against Razak under house arrest April until June police withdrew their dence permitted return Parliament Meanwhile wakil refused along Etemadi sought censure Razak bring floor motion censuring Etemadi Dealing nothing Parliament Min istry Finance spirit things failing deliver budget Senate until April fiscal already month The Senate Although consul respect budget Senate mulled until July passing Lower House consideration summer session Although Lower House nothing bills initiate campaign harass ultimately resignation Minister Information Culture Dr Mahmoud Habibi November Among other things Dr Habibi accused permitting government controlled press publish accounts parliamentary committee sessions which usually criticized government meetings abibi questioned charges excessive censor press alleged religious demonstrations counter leftist influences forceful program encourage Pashto language Practically every depart ministry under attack alleged shortcoming At first Wolesi Jirgah proposed session agreed confidence motion against Minister Information Culture pressure King advisers helped defeat motion Then secret session July Wolesi Jirgah approved similar motion Neither government press press presented clear picture actually happened minister finally resigned officially personal reasons preventing Cabinet crisis satis fying wakil temporarily However action against Dr Habibi opened constitutional questions which answered which Supreme Court potent ruled The major whether wakil confidence respect individual minister The govern lawyers opposition lawyers insisted wakil qualified judge enjoy battle Two constitutional articles involved Article The confidence against Government shall specific direct In legislative terms following mulgation Constitution confidence against Government shall thirds majority Wolesi Jirgah Governments after period beginning teenth Parliament majority members The Government argument Article tions Government Cabinet whole individual members Article The Prime Minister Ministers collectively responsible Wolesi Jirgah general policy Government individually their prescribed duties The Government argues collec tively paramount while critics insist individually combined responsible makes minister subject confidence Enjoying confrontation wakil snapping Dr Habibi during session until forced resignation described above They engaged internal bicker mounted committee investi gations executive branch The session under without His Majesty King Mohammad Zahir Shah He Queen Homaira traveling abroad September until early November They U S S R unofficial visit short official visits Czechoslovakia Austria Italy During their absence Crown Prince Ahmad Shah capacity Regent opened session Shura October The Lower House muster quorum until October A diligent delegate representing Districts Kabul Ghulam Mohammad Farhad reached patience nothing Wolesi Jirgah resigned As Social Democratic party unofficial without legal standing nascent parties Afghanistan columns newspaper Afghan Mellat Lower House action On return King things namic His Majesty tried directly influencing Parliament ecutive paralyzed important legislation being committee decided The pressing items outstanding business ordinary development budgets fiscal which March Draft Law Establishment Industrial Development Bank The King consultation Budgetary Finance Committee indicated would great pleasure pieces legislation acted dispatch presented Lower House passage though Committee already rejected Draft Law IDB In quick response Wolesi Jirgah voted December remain session normal closure December until budgets IDB Bills considered The Budgetary Finance Committee quickly considered IDB Bill passed majority submitted Wolesi Jirgah By January Wolesi Jirgah general sessions since October It should about often lacked quorum Now His Majesty spoken quorum regularly present wakil realized drastic measures would necessary recess before session begin March So January Wolesi Jirgah voted every morning committees afternoon The plenary meetings would consider IDB Bill Budg etary Finance Committee would spend afternoons working budgets The Com mittee often early afternoon midnight which members received overtime Three weeks after His Majesty expressed support IDB Bill approved Wolesi Jirgah The reported unanimous several leftist delegates walked before nsidered Western imperialism although Soviets cated would probably willing channel funds Incidentally several million dollars unspent Russian loans tagged develop industry projects Even though Wolesi Jirgah passed Bill implementation because Meshrano Jirgah approve until June Bill still needed King signature A major complaint against IDB Bill Article permits function relatively government control requires Afghan government guarantee repayment loans On January Budgetary Finance Com mittee finally presented version March March budgets This touched monious attacks government presenting budgets after begun Meshrano Jirgah holding budgets The Wolesi Jirgah ultimately approved budgets against abstentions The ordinary budget normal government expenses billion afghanis approved presented Committee Committee development budget slightly billion afghanis million afghanis simply slicing following revenue items which enacted million afghanis increased million afghanis increased traders million afghanis livestock The conservative landholding livestock owning trading oriented wakil inclined taxes themselves Thus months Afghan fiscal March March government finally official budgets It taken Wolesi Jirgah months prove budgets Most committee Both ordinary development budgets passed after floor debate This itself iticized wakil pointed rapid action needed because government presented measures Senate after fiscal begun Upper House inordinate amount study budgets The Wolesi Jirgah recommended govern present budgets advance session The deputies demanded government abide Article Consti tution which calls accounting vious budgets least month before budget presented With legislative previous general sessions Wolesi Jirgah adjourned February months Many hoped finishing blaze glory wakil would inspired really things moving returned March The session opened however delegates present until later April first general session quorum finally arrived Several interlocking reasons accounted delay typical wakil highly independent under party disci pline Afghan New Year March wakil preferred their families provinces Ministry In terior chose period March nounce appointment provincial governors Provinces Herat Balkh Ghazni Badakhshan Faryab Jowzjan Logar Parwan Farah Bamiyan Samangan Laghman Nimroz Ghor deputies volved provinces wanted around greet governors arrived their constit uencies Important moves occurred before first meeting Wolesi Jirgah however The Minis Finance budgets Meshrano Jirgah March The Upper House members resident Kabul trouble obtaining quorum The ordinary development budgets totaled billion afghanis ordinary billion development One eighth total would taxes which years doubtful present Wolesi Jirgah increase anytime Over billion afghanis development budget repayment foreign loans On budgets submitted there interesting political development Moham Ishaq Osman resigned Ittehad Melli party which helped rejuvenate order policies power elite The party newspaper named Ittehad Melli ported resignation result simple internal struggle power Osman stated other press papers policy relat agricultural reforms It remembered Osman Mohammadzai Durrani Pushtun peripheral member royal family Afghans believe ordered power elite The rumors include other Mo hammadzai wakil In event significant although Afghan recognize political parties thrive unofficially particularly extremes right While Lower House waited quorum committees houses began consider legis lation still under study Senate quorum Kabul began regular sessions On April Senator Shamsuddin Majrooh force fully brought attention Upper House absence Provincial Council repre sentatives called Constitution He sisted Provincial Councils Act immediately implemented That would charges Senate functioning outside Constitution further would Shura democratic flavor On April Wolesi Jirgah voted government publish daily names absent wakil announce Radio Afghanistan The first issued April carried names second until May absentees recorded After daily named deputies representing outlying districts Some remote areas never attended session Parliament The start general sessions signal Wolesi Jirgah resume ecutive Two items brought attention Lower House It alleged April wakil charged traffic violation Kabul beaten police A provincial wakil colleagues governor province guilty misconduct In instances usual procedure followed Com mittees appointed investigate reports delayed indefinitely However charges police brutality chain events tually downfall Etemadi govern The Wolesi Jirgah invited Prime Minister Cabinet appear before general session April answer questions concer leged beating wakil about conduct government general What routine confrontation between government Lower House bitter debate constitutional issue resignation Prime Minister On morning April deputies signed question government Each wakil would floor minutes If their government would under about twenty hours Before question session began Speaker assembled wakil exchange respondence between Lower House government relating appearance Prime Minister members Cabinet That constitutional fireworks The government responding request Lower House conceded right Wolesi Jirgah question members Cabinet approval disapproval government decisions actions However government nounced would answers after hearing questions The House immediately unanimously rejected government demanded question answered responsible Minister asked after which House would whether answer deemed ceptable Thus question would bring facto confidence The dispute procedure centered inter pretation articles Constitution Article The members Wolesi Jirgah questions Government Debate Government explanation depends decision Lower House Article The members Parliament tions Prime Minister Min isters about specific subjects Persons asked bound furnish written answer The answer shall subject debate The House justified action citing Article while government chose abide Article The attack wakil merly supported government Mohammadzai One Mohammad Ishaq Osman Kabul other Abdul Rashid wakil Pul Khumri They corded their complaints series questions various Ministers Mines Industries there slowdown velopment projects Commerce government encourage industrial expansion Edu cation there increase portunity education masses Infor mation Culture there improvement quality radio program Interior Ministry acted police brutality The these expressed outrage members colleague committed traffic violation could manhandled Kabul police station Other wakil floor demanding mediate answers their questions As Min isters adamantly refused answer individual tions order broke Finally catcalls floor threatened drown Speaker Etemadi Cabinet protesting proceedings unconstitu tional The wakil voted consider resolution nonconfidence government session Thus expected legislative executive collision which regarded inevitable after Etemadi government received ambiguous confidence November Until general session Wolesi Jirgah May Afghan constitutional specialists debated issue press others Kabul argued houses behind walls No consensus could reached Un fortunately Supreme Court considers matters jurisdiction until Legal Au thorization Law passed Some experts believe matter constitutional issue simply problem procedure which should solved examining other parliaments handle question devising rules under which Lower House government Apparently separate issues involved government explanation general policy response prior questions questions specific issues incidents government actions inactions which either answered information later govern requests prepare adequate answer A confidence occur stage proceedings Some point Maiwandwal Cabinet appeared twice before Lower House during tenure explanations policy answer specific questions setting precedent The first Etemadi Cabinet appeared related gradual deterioration relations between legislative executive branches which ultimately brought impasse Some issue government answers questions important Afghan Prime Minister extremely nerabl Because political parties legal standing Afghan Prime Minister assured support Lower House He Cabinet targets attack sides opposition liamentary systems As suggested Senator Shamsuddin Majrooh A parliamentary cratic system without political parties resembles vehicle without engine Caravan April The introduction political parties would permit establishment important horizontal links within Cabinet vertical links between Cabinet Parliament Such lines munication could clear misunderstandings reaching floor Shura In addition horizontal links could forged provinces supplementing already functioning vertical power structure Ultimately increased literacy improved intensi regionally oriented development programs power should broaden embrace ulation number meaningful peting political units Behind scenes King members power elite talked deputies attempt avoid confidence Etemadi served His Majesty honorably King sought honorable Prime Minister tenure When May session commenced Dr Omar Wardak Speaker Lower House asked secret session provided Article Constitution As prearranged Lower House agreed voted postpone confi dence King Mohammad Zahir Shah coming publicly introduced number recently appointed provincial judges press He flatly stated future democ depended friendly relations cooper ation between three branches government Behind scenes political activity increased parliamentary committee meetings first lagged failed assemble quorum almost every plane riving Kabul brought Afghan ambassadors Washington Rome Cairo Tokyo On May journalistic history Afghanistan Caravan speculated cerning rumors impending Cabinet shift something never before That Wolesi Jirgah passed following motion Since April resolution passed Wolesi Jirgah result disagreement between government House People implementation Articles Con stitution later these branches state reach accord about issues advocating mutual cooperation between these branches government conformity supreme interests country under prevailing conditions House People decided debating issue adopted during April sessions The final against number abstentions simply walked making accurate tally impossible Man deputies believe Wolesi Jirgah parliamentary rights They point cleared Etemadi would preferred formal rather informal instrument government They wanted thirds confidence required Consti tution But pressures prevailed The expected official announcement Royal Secretariat May accompanied Etemadi carefully worded letter resignation In Almighty God Kind Forgiving Your Majesty I submit greatest respect Your Majesty honored government I expressed readi accept grave responsibility trust serve country response Your Majesty bidding receiving House People confidence stood service nation complete under standing respect prerogatives limitations afforded heart hopes sincerity country without personal ambitions seeking publicity I whatever I could achieve sublime objective In instances where government service carrying exercising duties colleagues members government those civil servants military officers precedence service country everything particularly dedication patriotic youth effective share In present juncture situation advancement country other politi stability required which could found except light under cooperation particularly between executive legislature anything spirit laboration achievement preme objective which embodies being prosperity nation necessary Si national interests obligations requirements commands allow advancement should permit roadblocks created handling affairs nation I consider continuation service government effective I offer humbly regrets Your Majesty I should tinue duties With Your Majesty permission I Cabinet colleagues gratitude Your Majesty valuable advice guidance which received during terms office Almighty God honor Af ghanistan prosperity compatriots success democratic order under leadership beloved monarch At earnest Your Majesty wishes aspirations prosperity advancement nation fulfilled Al mighty God With motto God Nation Sovereign humbly yours Nur Ahmad Ete It noteworthy Etemadi refer constitutional crisis which precipitated resignation problem constitutionality remains unsolved Thus after three years Nur Ahmad Etemadi ceased Prime Minister Afghan istan reached another turning point constitutional experiment NOTES See Louis Dupree Afghanistan Continues Its Experi Democracy LD Fieldstaff Reports South Asia Series Vol XV No Lower House committees include Finance Budg etary Law Legislative National Defense Law Imple mentation Supervision Public Works Communi cations Public Health Foreign Affairs including Pushtunistan Commerce Agriculture Animal Hus bandry Irrigation Home Municipal Affairs Edu cational Cultural Affairs Planning Mines In dustries Petitions private citizens Senate committees slightly those Lower House Because fewer members Senate combined committees National Defense Public Works Communications Education Cultural Affairs Public Health A Joint Parliamentary Committee members house tries differences passed legislation As April quorum J P C consists members house mittee chairman The twelfth Parliament initially required attendance thirds members Wolesi Jirgah quorum regular sessions Absenteeism forced change majority See Louis Dupree Constitutional Development Cultural Change Part III The Afghan Constitution Articles LD Fieldstaff Reports South Asia Series Vol IX No Chairman Inayatullah Iblagh Begram District Parwan Province First Deputy Chairman Kamaluddin Ishaqzai Sar Pul District Jowzjan Province Second Deputy Chairman Shamsul Haq Qarqayi District Baghlan Province T Senate Accreditation Committee chaired appointed Senator twelfth I Shura Mohammad Shah Sediqian oldest Senate Paris November returned Kabul burial The Senate thirds required consti tutional membership Article Constitution stipulates Senators shall elected years provinces shall appointed King terms among informed experienced persons shall elected still realized Provincial Councils Article provides Provincial Council shall elect members Meshrano Jirgah Senate period three years Some Afghan lawyers question whether Shura function legally thirds Senate seats filled The Provincial Councils Law implemented Sehum Aqrab Louis Dupree Afghanistan I966 LD Fieldstaff Repo South Asia Series Vol X No English speech Kabul Times Annual published Kabul Times Sayed Khalil Shafie Rahel For detailed report published later Two Ministers designate Serat Justice Ayeen Minister without Portfolio returned abroad November See Louis Dupree Free Enterprise Afghanistan Part I The Private Sector Investment Law LD Free Enterprise Afghanistan Part Programs Problems Prospects LD Fieldstaff Reports South Asia Series Vol XIV Nos Several Pushtun wakil delivered speeches wakil Khost District Paktya interrupted Etemadi mentioned pushing Pashto Why speech Pashto rather Dari Etemadi calmly waited continued Dari Among Draft Law Livestock Tax Draft Law Land Tax Law Reg ulate Government Disputes Law Judicial Authority Organization Draft Law Cadastral Survey several foreign loans cultural agree ments Idem Wakil Senators Afghan stand afghanis month overworked committee members another monthly marathon sessions Presidents houses receive afghanis month compared ministers afghanis Article Debates Houses except Government President House least members request secret session House grants approval The House thirds majority members convert secret proceedings debate Ministry Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister Foreign Affairs National Defense Interior Finance Justice Mines Industries Agriculture Public Works Education Information Culture Commerce Planning Public Health Communications Minis Portfolio Tribal Affairs APPENDIX A Etemadi First Cabinet Nur Ahmad Etemadi Dr Ali Ahmad Popa13 Abdullah Yaftali The Prime Minister Gen Khan Mohammad IChan4 Dr Mohd Omar wardaks Eng Mohd Bashir Ludin Dpty Min acted Minister June Dr Mohd Anwar ziayee6 Prof Mohammad Asghar Eng Abdul Samad Eng Mohd Husain Eng Mir Mohd Akbar Eng Mohammad Husain Messa Dr Ali Ahrnad Popall O Dr Mohd Akran Dr Mohd Dr Nour Dr Abdul Samad Harnid1 Miss Kobra bIurzail4 Eng Mohd Azim Gran Dr Abdul Wahid Sorabil Sayyid Masood Pohanyarl Etemadi Second Cabinet Nur Ahmad temadi Abdullah yaftalil Dr Abdul The Prime inister Gen Khan Mohammad Eng Mohd Bashir Ludin Dr Mohammad Aman Abdul Satar Seerat Amanullah Mansoori Abdul Hakimi Eng Mohd Yaqub Lali Dr Abdul Dr Mohd Akbar abibi Dr Mohd Akbar Omar Dr Abdul Wahid Prof Ibrahim Majid Seraj Eng Mohd Azim Mrs Shafiqa Ziayee Ghulam Ali Ayeen Sayyid Masood Pohanyarl NOTES TO APPENDIX A See Louis Dupree Afghanistan LD Fieldstaff Reports South Asia Series Vol X No Appendix A previous Cabinets consult Afghanistan Some New Approaches G Grassmuck L Adamec F Irwin Ann Arbor University Michigan Press Maiwandwal resigned October Abdullah Yaftali Minister Finance Maiwandwal Cabinet served acting Prime Minister until Etemadi Cabinet appeared November Dr Popal appointed Ambassador Pakistan June See Louis Dupree The Student Demonstrations Kabul LD Fieldstaff Reports South Asia Series Vol XIV No The staying power Minister National Defense illustrates power basically nonpolitical outlook Dr Wardak resigned June stand Wolesi Jirgah He subsequently elected speaker Lower House See Louis Dupree Afghanistan Continues Experiment Democracy LD Fieldstaff Reports South Asia Series Vol XV No Dr Ziayee served Minister Planning previous Maiwandwal Cabinet Resigned because scandal ministry summer although Eng Salim apparently involved Messa Mines Industries Public Works after Salim resignation Messa posts previous Cabinets Minister Communications later Mines Industries Interim Cabinet Dr Mohd Yousuf Interior Dr Yousuf One Day Cabinet Idem Engineer Reza Agriculture portfolio following previous Cabinets Dr Yousufs One Day Cabinet preceding Maiwandwal Cabinet Dr Popal resigned Minister Education November because Wolesi Jirgah rejected Decree Admin istration Kabul University Dr Anas served Minister Education Interim Cabinet Dr Yousuf One Day Cabinet Dr Nour Ali served capacity Dr Yousufs Day Cabinet preceding Maiwandwal Cabinet Dr Harnid appointed Minister Planning aborted Dr Yousuf Cabinet Held preceding Maiwandwal Cabinet Dr Sorabi prominent Hazara family Although holding title President still Cabinet Served Minister Interior Interim Cabinet Dr Yousuf Resigned under pressure November Served first Etemadi Cabinet APPENDIX B EXCERPTS FROM PRIME MINISTER ETEMADI S SPEECH TO THE HOUSE OF THE PEOPLE DURING THE CONFIDENCE VOTE SESSION PRIOR TO COUNTING OF VOTES ON DECEMBER This government hearing great patience spoken during these meetings November moment about weeks These meetings taken shape speech contests Some tried speak louder harsher criticise everything They perhaps thought shall acquire greater prominence During speeches members demanded building schools hospitals canals houses roads factories industries Some flatly denied existence number development works projects Hilrnand Naghlu Salang Nangrahar canal modern constructions which result years labour They neglect disregard developments which taken place country during years whose results evident Others spoke about facilities fields development trade agriculture hospitals schools roads houses water supply electricity Another group members dwelt conditions poverty distress unemployment disease illiteracy educational facilities bribery misappropriations smuggling other social evils They alleged responsibility these misfortunes poverty entirely executive which running government years The speeches delivered during these divided three categories The first category those honorable members spelt grievances backward conditions requirements country their constituencies which understandable We consider recommendations these sincere earnest members valuable possible sideration given their views The speeches delivered another group members related particular political views ideologies which expressed their distinguished manner which people fully acquainted already given their verdict about Similarly during session heard those whose personalities social behaviours known years people This small political group which related isolated batch utilised House platform their poisonous misleading publicity They motivated personal grudges misused their privileges parliamentarians spoke nothing except which would advance selfish motives themselves their associates During these weeks little about unite guidelines advancement Hardly anyone clearly point where remedy these Everyone asked everything shall contributed acquisition Everyone expressed needs requirements expectations explain factors behind these expectations these fulfdled present circumstances existing limitations One Deputies speech years where I If stage I realized services useful I assure I shall remain Chair moment thereafter No doubt I shall abide undertaking which reference Deputy Minister If I abused premiership personal benefit benefit family I utilised chair forming party mobilising illegal groups purpose establishing myself politically I government property privileges chair illegal manner interest political group I sacrificed interests Afghanistan selfish motives hypocritically having black handkerchief around I misled students precincts University giving false promises political motives I employed government press personal publicity I obliged government servants serve illegal political group through threats intimidation temptations I proscribed papers their fault revealing truth facts illegal manner I would I remained moment Chair This member Parliament related known political group accused political strangulation We would strangulation existed could anyone floor House which cradle legislature government process formation itlegal If strangulation existed could number nongovernment papers increase fourfold during period years If suppression existed could deputies opposition House Could express their views attack government The against freedom rights greatly misused misinterpreted there persons House against values basic norms called society obliterated At juncture foundations Afghanistan being country facing greatest tests evaluation sincerity casting votes whether against shall vital ushering turning government This I considered higher interests nation having I performed towards country people Source The Kabul Times December