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- From Marketplace to Battlefield: Counting the Costs of Thailandís Drug War
by Matthew Z. Wheeler
ICWA LETTERS Since Institute Current World Affairs Crane Rogers Foundation provided fellowships enable outstanding young professionals outside United States write about international areas issues An exempt operating foundation endowed Charles R Crane Institute supported contributions minded individuals foundations TRUSTEES Bryn Barnard Joseph Battat Steven Butler Sharon Griffin Doorasamy William F Foote Peter Geithner Kitty Hempstone Katherine Roth Kono Cheng Li Peter Bird Martin Ann Mische Dasa Obereigner Chandler Rosenberger Edmund Sutton Dirk J Vandewalle HONORARY TRUSTEES David Elliot David Hapgood Pat M Holt Edwin S Munger Richard H Nolte Albert Ravenholt Phillips Talbot Institute Current World Affairs The Crane Rogers Foundation Four West Wheelock Street Hanover New Hampshire 03755 U S A MZW SOUTHEAST ASIA Matthew Wheeler recently RAND Corporati security terrorism researcher studying relations among between nations along Mekong River From Marketplace Battlefield Counting Costs Thailand Drug War By Matthew Z Wheeler MAY BANGKOK Thailand On February Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra Ministry Agriculture building distraught young knees pleaded Prime Minister Suwit Baison assistant cameraman Channel sobbed Prime Minister parents killed apparent government crackdown This awkward encounter tween young cameraman Prime Minister played before crowd journalists story evening That marked first month three month campaign ordered Thaksin Alarmingly people death Kingdom since beginning campaign There spread speculation police killing suspects drive Prime Minister stated completely eradicating drugs Thailand three months Remarks senior government officials Thaksin assertion people shouldn alarmed murders little discour speculation Suwit surprise petition Prime Minister human guish caused sudden increase called extra judicial killings After phone calls missed appointment Suwit Ruang story He asked crowded place later afraid The worst already happened A compact mannered young sleepy Suwit earnest With deliberation patience explained about circumstances parents murders understanding conducted Suwi learned parents murdered before fronted Prime Minister At around afternoon Suwit motorcycle stopped Bangkok traffic light phone His stepsister crying hysterical His mother stepfather farmers Petchabun province killed their police station For Suwit The traffic light turned green Horns blared busses passed Suwit later recalled energy drained Suwit walked cycle His raced tried piece together contacts mother stepfather His mother called before husband moned police station Villagers their urged police village headmen report police station swear connection drugs Suwit local stepfather Three times searched police found drugs It Suwit stepfather times mixed marijuana cigarette tobacco uncommon upcountry In November stepfather friend busted while taking rette break their field The grams marijuana police found belonged friend arrested When Suwit mother police station husband police taunted saying dared return station single methamphetamine She lawyer husband released after Suwit mother further problems police It better clear names She police think anything And scared There daily reports suspected dealers gunned government pursued crackdown Suwit mother If alone Take people It Suwit spoke Emerging curbside stupor Suwit decided Petchabun He Saraburi couple hours Bangkok uncle called He Suwit Petchabun Suwit uncle employee another television station Prime Minister Thaksin would Agriculture Min istry morning Go write everything Suwit Give letter Prime Min ister Suwit returned Bangkok spent night writing letter giving details parents about circum stances their murder In morning copies Arriving Agriculture Ministry Suwit found official Prime Minister Office The official letter folded pocket He assured Suwit Suwit satisfied He other journalists happened parents intended The journalists until Prime Minister arrived When Thaksin emerged crowd reporters Suwit while other reporters pushed before Prime Minister Suwit intend knees slipped journalists pushed forward He doesn remember exactly Thaksin Suwit recalled Prime Minister reaction blanched stammered Where Where After incident Prime Minister Office pocketed letter spent several minutes Suwit assurances parents murders would investigated Two ranking offic police Crime Suppression Division later Suwit Now waits their report After encounter Thaksin Suwit returned Petchabun organize funeral three young siblings through would looked after While Petchabun learned details parents murder On parents killed Suwit phone office His mother called colleague answered She sounded worried league declined leave message Suwit heard relatives roadside fruit seller nessed murders afraid According witness white sedan cense plate followed Suwit parents stepfather driving motorcycle mother riding pillion As along The windows rolled inside opened A friend living close police station corrobo rated story white sedan which arrive police station after murders Suwit learned local journalist millimeter shell found scene another discovered tangled mother This journalist MZW photos murdered parents taken hospital His stepfather times His mother three times One bullet pierced right raised shield Suwit doesn killed parents He convinced provincial officials having people killed targets govern He knows about shadowy highly skilled killing teams employed government against communists thinks From learned thinks police neighboring provinces exchange killing teams local police implicated He pects Border Patrol Police paramilitary force millimeter handgun military weapon He knows parents spent police station He those local policemen harassed stepfather pointing parents visiting killing According Suwit uncle local policeman sarcastically offered funeral Suwit attributes parents deaths blood between stepfather local police To knowledge parents names blacklist suspects Petchabun province Each province prepared orders Interior Ministry preparation campaign often people these lists being killed Suwit noted procedure authorities parent district where villag asked swear connections drugs unusual In other districts provinces primarily people provincial black lists asked report Some times Suwit parents murdered police station When Suwit returned Bangkok taken politi sports entertainment Someone ernment called director Chan government owned station ensure Suwit Thaksin would cross paths again One newscaster apologized Suwit being whole story parents deaths Suwit believes fired would story When nalist Australian Broadcasting Corporation sought interview Suwit superiors forget He ordered quiet Suwit received saying should ashamed lying Prime Minister parents deserved should mouth Suwit tinues officers Crime Suppression Division finish their investigation parents He doesn expect When meeting Suwit It about Methamphetamines became Thailand greatest latter 1990s Massive tities speed flooded Thailand Burma Thai bubble economy burst Once prima truck drivers laborers economic produced consumers dealers among unemployed desperate Filmed images crazed addicts terrorizing toddlers women became standard television broadcasts By decade government recognized influx crazy Kingdom foremost INSTITUTE OF CURRENT WORLD AFFAIRS tional security threat At government number amphetamine abusers Thai million though estimates million nearly percent population By those estimates Thailand largest capita consumer methamphetamines world Frustration methamphetamine problem Thailand A conducted Assumption University ABAC Pol found respondents believed drugs constituted greatest crisis facing Thailand Thai people I asked invariably described drugs problem facing Thailand Meanwhile judicial system proven unable trade The jails overflowing level fenders courts overwhelmed cases Sixty percent court cases cases offences Meanwhile percent Thailand budget spent outreach prevention In annual birthday speech December King Bhumiphol Adulyadej criticized Thai govern failing effectively problem urged government declare drugs Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra criticized King successive birthday speeches responded His Majesty unleashing called suppression campaign Thaksin former lieutenant colonel turned telecommunications tycoon called together provincial governors police chiefs military officers National Security Council announce initiative January Thaksin I every square country getting X rayed authorities making clean sweep drugs every within three months Thaksin deadline April directive completely implemented In keeping image decisive chief execu officer Thaksin energized subordinates centives offering rewards bonuses methamphetamine pills seized He offered incentives those officials govern quotas putting dealers deadline would their The Prime Minister clear campaign would brutal Drug traders unkind toward children unkind toward Progress campaign would measured titatively performance based number suspected offenders removed called black lists province According Sunai Pasuk Bangkok based Asia Forum Human Rights De velopment Forum Asia blacklists their origin statistics provincial officials submitted earlier government wanted names match numbers District chiefs village headmen informants required names suspected dealers Those whose names turned blacklists The blacklists totaling names nationwide forwarded Interior Ministry Provincial officials ordered clear percent names lists first month percent second month third final month The means which names should cleared specified During first weeks arrests pects soared warehouses bulged confiscated drugs suspected dealers turned Two killed first campaign By second people murdered Kingdom average Police claimed responsibility killings defense By first month campaign death I effects first visit Phitsanulok central Thailand where I lived Walking train station I teenaged sitting girlfriend nursing I thought nothing until hours later I witnessed street fight savage I believed I witnessing homicide Onlookers prevented intervening explaining combatants speed The fight ended spectators least victim managed scramble pursued wielding assailants The I campus where I taught English former supervisor office He school after using classmates attacked I little hours Edward McBride Nasty Business The Economist March Bangkok Post January MZW police claiming killings defense Taking account Thailand homicide month February shortest month surge murders above usual number Police described majority these killings The government claimed dealers other order avoid being betrayed The victims invariably death Meth amphetamine pills usually found bodies Though murders result gangland warfare vincial officials counted toward their government mandated quotas Few people government explanation credible Thais untroubled death suspected dealers The campaign enjoyed broad Bangkok University Dusit Poll reported percent respondents polled during third February satisfied government crack though percent feared being blacklisted percent feared being gunned In February I revealing conversation driver What think about government It What about people getting killed They dealers The government solving problem But government right They should arrested It illegal government Are Yes Killing people illegal Are illegal police Yes I think wrong about police No I certain against police people Are He there With count growing daily columnists demics human rights activists attempted atten flagrant disregard abuse human rights Dr Pornthip Rojanasunand deputy rector Forensic Science Institute press Bangkok police stopped calling staff pathologists conduct autopsies which standard practice 6Similar reports camefromthe provinces Amnesty International Thailand criticized government condon extra judicial execution noting violated Thai International Covenant Civil Political Rights Thailand agreed The government unrepentant Interior Minister Wan Muhammad Nor Matha I think these activ shouldn worry about these traffickers lives Indeed weeks campaign Inte Minister prodded provincial officials reminding consequenc should government goals Any provincial governor police chief continues waking clock morning sipping their coffee office instead actively going after traffickers weighing government against drugs They should check history books about King Naresuan generals failed battleground during great fight against prince Burma The King beheaded Prime Minister Thaksin asked S hould about these killings It unusual wicked people The public should alarmed their deaths Despite media Thaksin weekly radio address March I would inform government carry decisive action solve problem The Prime Minister deflected criticism Statistics Thailand homicides R Thai Police website available police stat43 Thais Fear Being Killed Drug Crusade The Star Malaysia February No Autopsies Drug Deaths The Nation February Amnesty International Thailand Extra Judicial Executions Must Not Be Used Means Suppress Drug Trafficking February available amnesty WhatsNew PR_11 Campaign Will Make Difference Sant The Nation February How Wage War Against Drugs The Nation February PM Says Rights Body Comments Distorted The Nation February INSTITUTE OF CURRENT WORLD AFFAIRS paign steady refrain think children He constantly contrasted welfare Thailand youth dealers demanded critics choose sides This theme assumed unintended Chakrapan Srisa suspected dealers killed during police eration February The government sounded first caution death Three officers arrested though police maintained members monitoring parents responsible The investigation inconclusive The after Chakrapan killed National Police Chief Sant Saturanond publicly questioned Interior Ministry blacklists voicing misgivings suppressed campaign began Thaksin admit likely officers committed murders mistakes paign would corrected The death Chakrapan other innocents includ other children pregnant women grandmothers changed public perception campaign government contrition short lived Even Office Narcotics Control Board promised review blacklists Interior Minister Wan Nor insisted vincial officials would still government targets Recognizing regular reports murder victims attracted wrong media attention government announced March would publicizing daily count On March Thaksin declared panels monitor operations reported problems Meanwhile international criticism extra killings Foreign diplomats Bangkok sought I believe government right suppress drugs wrong Instead following Constitution international human rights agreements tried radical choosing violent technique Dr Pradit Charoenthaitawee National Human Rights Commission clarification Thai government assurances human rights would respected government pursued strategy Dr Pradit Charoenthaitawee National Human Rights Commission NHRC raised issue Thailand extra judicial killings United Nations High Commissioner Human Rights Sergio Vieira Mello during meeting Pakistan early March Re turning Bangkok Dr Pradit announced requested Mello dispatch UN Special Rap porteur extra judicial summary arbitrary execu tions investigate situation Thailand Dr Pradit request UN enraged Thaksin spluttered The UN father Thaksin quently makes comments press corps later blamed unseemly outburst provocative tions reporters On March apparent effort prevent future flare Prime Minister announced would longer speak media about politics muang would answer questions about tional administration This short lived strategy dealing press Thaksin describing Dr Pradit actions sickening In May UN special repre sentative human rights defenders Hina Jilani spent Thailand speaking govern officials members media human rights activists other members civil ciety Jilani reported I sensed level insecurity among human rights defenders which ranges unease actual The Some police officers involved counter concerned their networks informants would compromised disrupted drastic measures three month campaign Drug War On Track The Nation March PM Agrees Meet Media Halfway Bangkok Post March Yuwadee Tunyasiri PM Blasts Comments Pradit Sickening Bangkok Post March MZW problems traced highest levels ernment included efforts government organizations NGOs security apparatus judicial system human rights activists These concerns riously jeopardize Thailand progress democracy strengthening human rights protection Jilani cluded Thaksin responded personal attack suggest Jilani investigate other UN member countries including native Pakistan This woman biased terrible Thaksin blaming NGO representa tives influencing Jilani report Thaksin added I afraid There nothing The UN After first month campaign murders began decline though number mained higher average Opposition leader former Prime Minister Chuan Leekphai found slack ening murders suspicious The criminals reportedly behind killings should acted taking orders government But facts silencings although really committed gangs carried police given green light ernme That green light resulted lives short period At three months provinces targets government Ten provinces reported clearing names their blacklists The Office Narcot Control Board declared users surrendered authorities rehabilitation dealers arrested million speed pills seized The government reported murders between Feb ruary April It known these deaths related Police claimed responsibility killings during period defense There reasons doubt government tention police killed people during three month campaign dealers killed other dealers One glaring campaign officials charged carrying government pression policy themselves involved peddling drugs The number government officials involved trade difficult In parliament stated roughly government officials mostly police officers directly involved trade A February government report February linked government officials trade arrested February A March report police officers black listed fired following investigations legal prosecutions being pursued against officers The government description killings silencings accurate extent police ernment officials stake trade wished silence potential informers Even Thaksin conceded It common knowledge officers involved narcotics rings might sibly members could plicated After Thak announced three month deadline Senator Sawat Amornwiwat former national police chief criticized government saying drugs would ineffective state cials involved trade In politicians prominent officials arrested murdered three month campaign Most those dealers killed level pushers other people including proportion ethnic minorities That government waited until after initial three months launch campaign against influence catchall encompassing corruption organized crime suggests works functioned protect richest connected traffickers The government contention dealers killing other further undermined count widely anticipated before paign began Extra judicial killings nothing Thailand Suspects routinely mysteriously custody The before crackdown began Achara Ashayagachat Envoy Warns Climate Fear Bangkok Post May Yuwadee Tunyasiri PM Lashes Out UN envoy Criticism Bangkok Post May Decline Killing Rate Suspicious The Nation March Bangkok Post July UN Envoy Pleads Stop Killing Spree Bangkok Post February Arrested So Far War Drugs The Nation March The Nation March Pie Stuff Says Ex Cop Bangkok Post January See Amnesty International Thailand Widespread Abuses Administration Justice June which provides details cases human rights abuses Thailand security forces during arrests interrogation detention pects Report available amnesty aidoc aidoc_pdf Index ASA390032002ENGLISH File ASA3900302 From Thai prisoners every thousand prisoners almost twice prisoner deaths apartheid South Africa during period Although dated these statistics point longstanding culture impunity violence Thai enforcement corrections David Biles International Review Deaths Custody Research paper June available publications other dic1992 INSTITUTE OF CURRENT WORLD AFFAIRS Bangkok Post editorial attention suspicious deaths criminal suspects suggesting police minded constitutional rights private citizen enjoys police trespass these rights Indeed suspects police watch lists turning before official launch February In month prior ginning three month campaign suspected dealers death Northeast On January dealer mistress lieuten gunned southern Nakorn Si Thammarat The media speculated drastic measures ordered government crackdown would include killings Deputy Prime Min ister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh nominally charge government suppression efforts National Police Chief Sant compelled reassure report drastic measures meant seizing assets assassi nation In spite these assurances there concern within Justice Ministry campaign would bring extra judicial killings The campaign began Prime Minis Thaksin remarked dealers country being caught Covert killings agents state Thailand During Cold War agents Thailand autocratic military governments dered untold numbers students peasant activists leaders leftist politicians under banner communism The threat communism organizing principle Thailand security agenda served justify iterations military lations civil human rights The contemporary threat posed drugs times likened communist menace Before campaign began Police Lieutenant General Chalermdej Chompoonuj Narcotics Suppression Bureau It perhaps first Thai people general about serious threat drugs country We about Com munists The recent killings suspects recall earlier state sanctioned murders government trayed victims threats nation society unworthy legal protection Like communists before dealers vilified vermin Gov ernment rhetoric aimed dehumanizing suspects echoes infamous Vietnam declaration right Phra Kittiwuttho killing Communists Current former ranking military officers including Supreme Commander Surayud Chulanont Deputy Prime Minister Chavalit acknowledged called killing teams during communist period As current deputy chief Internal Security Operations Command ISOC General Panlop Pinmanee recalled interview In hunting It We communist leaders That Then rested General Panlop denied killing teams still exist Today explained security forces other means controlling government opponents intimidating families community leaders In sidering parallels between counter insurgency suppression Thailand interesting Communist Party Thailand defeated though intimidation assassination campaigns counter insurgency warfare through offers external support People Republic China In July there reports media ISOC submitted proposal revive killing teams traffickers Even government denied proposal solicited received police chief Region comprising provinces Thailand Northeast region reportedly admitted soring campaign assassinate dealers Accord report English language daily Nation Po Lieutenant General Pichai Sunthornsajjabul claimed Detention Cells Aren Death Row Bangkok Post January Anucha Charoenpo Fear Rights Abuses Grows Bangkok Post February Drug War Starts Shot Dead The Nation February Surath Jinakul Tightening Screws Drug Traders Bangkok Post January William J Klausner Two Peas Pod An Addendum February author possession Supara Janchitfah Victims Progress Bangkok Post September MZW organized strong alliance including police military officers local officials civilians Pichai reported If there enough evidence legal action drastic measures taken members alliance Elaborating campaign called Shortcut Hell Pichai explained We applied legal means political science Buddhism seems getting worse Now Death Angel Of course legally means bring peace society According report Pichai members alliance killed dealers plans least Sometimes General Pichai noted alliance members killed their relatives involved trade If social trouble makers missing I think cause anyone problem Pichai If their relatives accept I guess outsiders should accept The after story Pichai denied having comments saying misunderstood because phone connection He maintained though vigilantes taking matters their hands police condone activity Meanwhile Prime Minister Office Minister Thammarak Issarangkura plauded alliance saying I activities alliance within scope The Shortcut Hell something created scare racketeers Thammarak assurance notwithstanding thing similar Shortcut Hell appears carried Northeastern province Kalasin On April Thammarak presided ceremony declaring Kalasin Thailand first province In three years preceding declaration known ealers removed Kalasin While these dealers arrested province executed close range The members alliance reportedly encouraged people identify local dealers leaving sandal flower which associated funerals their doorsteps The Shortcut Hell campaign declara Kalasin status interesting potentially damning because present clear model recent The assassination campaign seems blueprint Kalasin successful trial government three month drive Kingdom Naturally Kalasin Six months after declaration freedom drugs again readily available province Certain facts associated recent paign indisputable The Thai police record extra judicial killings There relatively recent cedent employment killing teams Thai security apparatus murder domestic enemies state The government launched three month campaign February The Interior Minister gested dealers might vanish without trace The Prime Minister offered dealers choice between cemetery The government ordered provin officials compile lists suspects clear names those lists within specified Those cials failing government mandated targets threatened their More thousand people murdered Thailand during three months government campaign above normal murders Many those murdered during period returning police stations where summoned order declare connec trafficking Most those murdered counted toward quotas suspected dealers provincial offic required remove their lists No extra judicial killing during three month campaign presented Attorney Gen Of course effort establish causal relationship between these facts wholly speculative The killings alarmed Thai foreign servers because almost certainly lation human rights because represent latest shocking manifestation current government ambivalence toward The Nation July The Nation July Death Squad Claim Denied Bangkok Post April Dealers Face Lethal Govt Action Bangkok Post January Jail Death Dealers PM The Nation March INSTITUTE OF CURRENT WORLD AFFAIRS bodied Constitution The government parent encouragement extra judicial killings efforts silence critics signal narrowing democratic Thailand Asked accounts public murders Sunai Pasuk Forum Asia responded public frustration problem important The decisive factor however Thaksin ability control agenda Thailand In years Thaksin successfully brought instruments government social control under command Thaksin power immense personal wealth Thaksin became exploiting nexus business government oligopolistic business built government concessions After bling politics several years Thaksin founded Thai Rak Thai Party TRT capitalizing content nationalism stemming economic crisis harsh conditions International Mon etary Fund bailout embraced ruling Democrat Party Thailand biggest corporations backed Thaksin smaller political parties jumped bandwagon Thaksin appealed rural people pledges cheap health relief money every village Duncan McCargo senior lecturer Leeds Uni versity authority Thai politics writes Con cealed behind these public pledges backroom deals which showed stress novelty TRT heart collection interested cliques unburdened program ideology united little shared opportunism short traditional Thai political party What traditional about TRT popular policy oriented politics unprecedented control majority Parliament unparalleled wealth leader marketing prowess capacity deter national agenda influencing media As Sunai explains Thaksin confidence grown years triumphed again again In Thaksin TRT party defeated Thailand oldest party landslide Six months after taking office Thaksin acquitted charges asset concealment Consti tutional Court narrow decision apparently based political considerations rather strict application Under Thaksin leadership Thai Rak Thai nated parliament passed legislation taxes communications concessions favor Shin Corporation powerful telecom owned Shinawatra Notoriously brittle comes criticism Thaksin cowed media manipulating advertising state enterprises businesses associated Thai Rak Thai Thaksin tamed bureaucracy brought armed forces under control promoting friends relatives uniform Thaksin sought legitimize intimidate social tivists government organizations journalists demics others civil society question According Sunai Thaksin truly believes Thailand better situation ideas anyone better media better NGOs better academics The PM civil society In scheme there Prime Minister loyal subjects Under these circumstances Thaksin begun speak grandiose realistic terms period Thai Rak Thai dominance The scenario clear Thaksin April Other parties preoccupied fighting their survival should contemplate victory Thai Rak Thai Many government critics demoralized Thaksin success thwarting perceived reformist spirit Constitution This culmination reform movement began completed demands greater trans parency accountability emerged economic crisis Known People Constitution Duncan McCargo Democracy Under Stress Thaksin Thailand Journal Democracy October Bangkok Post A MZW provided establishment independent toring bodies including National Counter Corruption Commission National Human Rights Commission Election Commission Constitutional Court ensure principles governance countability would preserved implemented Thaksin openly contemptuous these bodies particu larly National Counter Corruption Commission which brought charges asset concealment against Thai Rak Thai successfully defanged these bodies ensuring staffed tractable political allies Such despair Thai Rak Thai political dominance Thai friend retired professor pered The Constitution Dr Pradit Na tional Human Rights Commission asserts Thaksin using nationalism Thailand toward dictatorship According Kavi Chongkittavorn assistant group editor Na Thaksin already taken almost politi space available independent monitoring bodies governmental civil society organizations media In Kavi Thaksin modern tyrant He prefers subtle approaches appearance openness transparency This reason killings disturbing government opponents In ernment abandoned pretense legality spect relying instead favorable media coverage public approval intimidation The scathing attacks opponents government counter strategy further cation slide toward authoritarianism The Defense Minister General Thammarak critics government suppression policy dealers The traders money anyone write article attack government The deputy chief ISOC former killing exponent General Panlop demande Dr Pradit National Human Rights Com mission keeps protecting dealers The intimidation critics verbal tacks Dr Pradit other human rights activists critical government policy received death threats They under house Dr Pradit My doesn answer phone anymore Equally distressing threat Thai Rak Thai members parliament initiate impeach proceedings against Dr Pradit thrown National Human Rights Commission With majority parliament Thai Rak Thai position threat The directive Suwit Baison I wouldn still military government popular elected government Sunai Pasuk Forum Asia employers Channel speak about parents murders another example government capacity suppress voice poten troublemakers Critics government alarmed government increasing reliance force settle disputes In December Hat Yai Songkla Province example violence erupted police force disperse group protesters gathered petition Prime Minister cabinet struction pipeline linking Thailand Malay The Prime Minister comments inter esting light subsequent Violence Thai Thaksin Who taught testers Such actions unacceptable These people credibility because resort violence When protesters their griev United Nations Thaksin called grave noting damage Thailand international stand world perceive Thailand abuser human rights During however Thaksin urged Thai people concerned international criticism Don conscious Don international standards Our country already looks international community Later Senate panel separate investigation National Human Rights Commission determined police instigated Hat Yai violence Interior Minister Wan Muhammad Nor Matha dered protesters dispersed The Thai government readiness extra judicial killings raises serious concerns campaign against influence National Police Chief Sant Those persuasive power manipulate misguide others illegal things Yuwadee Tunyasiri Thammarak Critics Dealer Pockets Bangkok Post March Wasana Nanuam Pradit Accused Protecting Drug Dealers Bangkok Post March Pipeline Protest Grave Sin The Nation January How Wage War Against Drugs The Nation F ebruary Pradit Ruangdit Probe Blames Wan Nor Police Riot Bangkok Post May INSTITUTE OF CURRENT WORLD AFFAIRS create turmoil leaders forest encroachers deemed influential people Such definition might encompass environmental activ community leaders NGO members government attacked being unpatriotic standing progress If government willing flout pursuit defines greater instance prepared another especially majority consents The willingness Thai government tolerate condone extra judicial killings those murdered considered threat stabil welfare nation deeply worrying That regressive devel opment should occur under elected government operating within framework Thailand progressive Constitution compounds despair government critics An editorial Nation laments It clear although functioning democracy restored country society blessed Constitution guarantees basic human rights large section population learn appreciate essence democratic values Surin Pitsuwan member parlia former Foreign Minister wrote We fought bring ambiguous power state bureaucracy under sacred control We sacrifices ultimate sacrifices vagaries security forces We losing control short satisfaction irresponsible public imagination To conclusion since judicial process inefficient disregard apply power violence limits abdicate supreme obligation government M eanwhile drugs continues On March Prime Minister decreed campaign would until December The final victory drugs Thaksin celebrations His Majesty birthday Institute Fellows chosen basis character previous experience promise They young professionals funded spend minimum years carrying designed programs study writing outside United States The Fellows quired report their findings experiences field month They write subject formally informally The result unique reporting analysis assessment interna tional events issues Author Wheeler Matthew Z Title ICWA Letters South Asia ISSN Imprint Institute Current World Affairs Hanover NH Material Type Serial Language English Frequency Monthly Other Regions East Asia The Americas Europe Russia Mi deast North Africa Sub Saharan Africa ICWA Letters ISSN lished Institute Current World Affairs Inc exempt operat foundation incorporated New York State offices located West Wheelock Street Hanover NH 03755 The letters provided charge members ICWA available libraries professional researchers subscription Phone E Mail ICWA valley Fax Web Site Executive Director Peter Bird Martin Program Assistant Brent Jacobson Publications Ellen Kozak Institute Current World Affairs The Crane Rogers Foundation The formation contained publication reproduced without War influence Thought Control The Nation May writer permission No Justification Killing Suspects The Nation February Surin Pitsuwan The War Drugs Human Security The Nation March