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- Making Sense of the Chilean Salmon Industry: Economic Boom or Environmental Doom?
by Peter Keller
ICWA LETTERS Since Institute Current World Affairs Crane Rogers Foundation provided fellowships enable outstanding young professionals outside United States write about international areas issues An exempt operating foundation endowed Charles R Crane Institute supported contributions minded individuals foundations TRUSTEES Joseph Battat Mary Lynne Bird Steven Butler William F Foote Kitty Hempstone Pramila Jayapal Peter Bird Martin Ann Mische Dasa Obereigner Paul A Rahe Carol Rose Chandler Rosenberger John Spencer Edmund Sutton Dirk J Vandewalle HONORARY TRUSTEES David Elliot David Hapgood Pat M Holt Edwin S Munger Richard H Nolte Albert Ravenholt Phillips Talbot Institute Current World Affairs The Crane Rogers Foundation Four West Wheelock Street Hanover New Hampshire 03755 U S A PK THE AMERICAS Peter Keller Forest Society Fellow Institute udying writing about national private parks Chile Argentina Making Sense Chilean Salmon Industry Economic Boom Environmental Doom By Peter Keller FEBRUARY PUERTO MONTT Chile Salmon Salmon Salmon dollars Salmon healthy Or least advertisements Chilean salmon industry promote Billboards magazine display images salmon cargo business woman kissing salmon company salmon tinted dollar green another company robust salmon maceuticals My initial image I filet plate until sleepless night That night orange tinted flood lights sounds diesel engines crates hitting ground filled hotel shores Chilo Island In morning I stumbled through dining search reason baggy The owner night racket every night salmon workers across What began years simple curiosity salmon workers doing personal investigation Each question questions What trucks delivering Are salmon native Chile What process farming salmon Where exported Complaints environmental groups caught attention particular These included criti cisms salmon farming impact aquatic water quality shoreline aesthet general sustainability issues On other salmon industry presented popular images economic savior relatively benign environ mental consequences Which I believe From utter confusion I course sense fishy business Welcome Salmon Zone A Primer Chile world second leading producer salmon trout behind Norway sales million In terms numbers salmon weighed pounds would million The Chilean salmon trout farming industry dynamic complex New methods equipment perpetually sought increase growth decrease production Systems constantly change processes statistics I write about newsletter could matter months Because fluid nature conversation about salmon especially industry insider engulfing discussion It black twilight where minutes quickly hours meals become sions salmon statistics automatic feeder Nearly eryone Puerto Montt salmon capital Chile family friends direct connection salmon industry In shared house alone three housemates living salmon It become sucked begin babble salmon Thus without further delay welcome salmon Prior arrival Chile I recall knowing about salmon As matter former ICWA Fellow Honorary Trustee Albert Ravenholt thought salmon available Seattle Atlantic salmon grown British Columbia Ravenholt eclectic ported Chinese civil helped invent Pacific region Magsaysay Awards developed wealth agriculture knowl He started cherry grape Washington state keeps close about anything grows whether trees fruit Ravenholt wanted about salmon Chile I Besides I puzzled Why Atlantic salmon would present Pacific Ocean In taxonomy terms salmon trout charr grayling within Salmonidae family These generally characterized their anadro nature spending their adult ocean spawn fresh water streams rivers Tw genuses Salmonidae family integral understanding division Atlantic Pacific stocks salmon listed below Genus Salmo Atlantic salmon Salmo salar Brown trout trout Salmo trutta Genus Oncorhynchus generally referred Pacific salmon Chinook King Salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch Sockeye Red Salmon Onchorhynchus nerca Pink Salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Chum salmon Oncorhynchus Japanese salmon Oncorhynchus masou Rainbow Steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki One difference between genuses Atlantic salmon spawn Pacific salmon except Steelhead trout after spawning Atlantic salmon indigenous North America Cape Cod Labrador Europe Portugal northern Russia Due fishing habitat destruction cycle swimming Salmon Short Course From plate July San Diego California Kim Vic Flake finished birthday celebration marinated baked salmon their Oceanside San Diego County As began Vic reached another bottle Chil happened notice salmon packaging country Kim salmon Chile asked Vic Is right Kim I would never guessed since seemed fresh Served everynight Anywhere U S A salmon South America makes journey diner plate The itinerary July LAX International Airport Flown daily fresh salmon arrive Los Ange Miami Santiago Chile after eight hours flight Following Customs inspection salmon delivered market refrigerated truck airplane July Santiago Chile Pudahuel International Airport Refrigerated shipping containers arrive truck around clock after Puerto Montt Insulated boxes fresh salmon trans ferred containers cargo flights July Processing Plant Puerto Montt Filled salmon water meter sized arrive trucks throughout daily double shifts At processing plant salmon headed gutted filleted trimmed order From arrival departure process between eight hours July Salt Water Salmon Farm Chilo Island Fed monitored months float salmon harvested weighing kilos Twenty hours later barge truck arrive processing plant Three generally lapse Chilean consumption United States June Fresh Water Salmon Farm Lago Chapo Puerto Montt Salmon fresh water floating months transferred water farms December Fish Hatc Fed monitored state hatcheries salmon moved nearby reach weight grams May Fish Hatchery Selected mature salmon fertilize initiate month cycle PK fresh water ocean Atlantic salmon reduced finished In spite coast hardy stocked outside their natural range places British Columbia Which these listed above Chile The answer In Rainbow trout first salmonids introduced Chile Europe By Atlantic salmon Brown trout cultivated Chilean hatchery stocked lakes rivers For decades these introduced established Like other salmon northern hemisphere similar stages include spawning streams growing fresh water smolts migrating adults returning spawn where hatched In Fundaci Chile joint venture between Chilean government U S ITT Corporation began develop aquaculture activities Chilo Island surrounding isles Aquaculture farming controlled environment They first bought hatchery Curaco V island Quinchao The objectives develop hatchery reproduce would grown controlled fresh water water sites In Salmones Ant rctica company established Fundaci Chile successful bringing market farmed Atlantic salmon That exported fresh salmon During following years salmon farming industry Chile level export metric thousand increase What happened meantime An entire industry almost nothing exponential rates What salmon farming successful Chile variety natural logistical conditions First Humboldt current flowing north brings clean water provides relatively constant water temperatures In addition jagged coastline fjords islands creates ideal setting protecting aquaculture sites rough Chile several logistical advan tages primarily principal element salmon Chile Also people along coastline miles dustry without complaint A Fjord His Future First visitors Puerto Montt region might tipped presence farming industry floating stationary cages visible lakes throughout region If doesn become curious about hundreds trucks carrying fiber glass tainers oxygen tanks attached daily procession trucks carrying large plastic somewhat fishy grance In these trucks southern Chile Atlantic salmon Coho salmon Rainbow trout principal species cultivated reasons I refer salmon trout farming simply salmon farming In process bringing highest valued market dozens businesses contribute common objective growing salmon cient manner possible least amount stress Currently moderate large sized companies active Chilean salmon farming business Multi national companies large presence world leading seafood producers Nutreco Fjord Seafood Stolt Sea Farm operating Chile Through contacts I interview CEO Fjord Seafood Chile Thomas Kehler spend staff touring field sites Fjord Seafood Norwe based company which currently world third largest salmon producer Kehler North American originally Chile fruit business However I arrived developed business I realized I about years chuckled Kehler Luckily I pened someone Fundaci Chile veloping salmon farming techniques Kehler Institute Current World Affairs potential salmon farming started Salmoamerica managing company sales million before bought Fjord Seafood Fjord asked manage Chilean company which consoli dation businesses nearly employees annual payroll million Even before arrived Chile Kehler stranger developing businesses In graduated began teaching prestigious school New England After stuffy nature boarding school wanted possible He Africa Eventually became guide Lake Albert which border between current Democratic Republic Congo Uganda There fishing trips Nile perch During befriended taught about nomic development theories entrepreneurship This Kehler Harvard Business School afterward accepted MIT fellowship Colombia As specialist rural economic development started several companies One particular flowered literally He managed Floramerica years flower green house producer exports United States Some commonalties shared between fresh flower fresh salmon businesses Both require rapid delivery market tight quality control measures They prime consolidation A years I could trend consolidation global salmon remarked Kehler So Fjord Seafood President Paul Birger Torgnes offer Salmoamerica I accepted With addition another company Tecmar Kehler oversaw tripling produc levels metric Salmon Farming Process When I Mr Kehler intent learn about salmon industry plate He provided ample opportunities I three hatcheries fresh water sites processing plants treatment plant unexpected plant Generally level technology sanitary ditions impressed After occasions donning protective walking through disinfectant I began think clean humans disease ridden creatures Hence salmon farming logically hatchery appropriate outer clothing plastic smock rubber boots From April through June hatcheries busiest brood stock mature stripped sperm Mixed together fertilized placed large water filled plastic containers gravel When hatch develop Alevins At gernail length attached nutrient Alevins become known absorb For months these protein pellets undergo prevention treatments At Huillinco Hatchery Chilo Island I Fjord Seafood Head Veterinarian Paolo Palacios He hatchery where seven twelve million salmon raised annually Generally survival percent stage reach Palacios The survival obviously depends health which includes factors source sanitary conditions medicinal treatments antibiotics vaccines Concerns about salmon health human consump Chilean resource conservation groups Fundaci Terram Ecoceanos raise issues To criticism salmon industry leaders petitioned government introduce establishing health dards Subsequently importation sanitary passed Nearly percent salmon ported This viewed opening exotic eases foreign imported hatcheries certified disease The antibiotics vaccines Chilean salmon farms controversial least compared other countries According report published Fundaci Terram antibiotics times greater salmon production Chile Norway The report cited statistics Chilean salmon industry metric antibiotics In comparison Norway country strict controls antibiotic officially The situation different Chile Meyling Tang As reporter Chilean Salmon Association Tang explai Norway salmon fected major disease vaccination developed early Thus antibiotics dropped nificantly Antibiotic decreasing Chile according report University Austral Puerto Montt In Norway eight milligrams antibiotics salmon produced while Chile milligrams times greater Norway Another factor statistics everyone reports every tibiotics This means numbers could higher possibly countries Paulo Palacios Fjord Seafood concerned about antibiotics years We reduced antibiotic significantly compared 1990s vaccines become readily available Even though vaccines expensive antibiotics He continued Our company policy apply medical treatments salmon months prior harvest Most treatments performed salmon young At three stage immersed solution control variety PK bacterias vaccinated against infectious creatic necrosis among other diseases Obviously interest Chilean salmon dustry control treatments maintain FDA approval exports U S A avoid pened during Chilean grape scare Chileans acutely aware consequences exported products tainted memories Chilean fruit embargo still fresh The FDA embargoed million crates Chilean grapes because traces cyanide grapes Thousands Chileans their U S million result Whether cyanide injected grapes while Chile U S still unknown ripple effect media warnings nificantly damaged fruit sales Chile Salmon farmers clean healthy salmon stage production New sanitary regulations require panies develop tracking treatments already Doris Soto professor Puerto Montt campus University Austral thought these regulations start cautioned The problem Chile regulations really lowed How forced field Soto continued Most companies government doesn enough inspectors We companies early before problems develop Medicinal treatments placed salmon promoting optimal growth conditions Salmon growth controlled manipulating water temperature oxygen content light photo period Application these factors particularly important adjust growth For instance Atlantic salmon harvested round weight kilos hatch between April June Thus feeding conditi manipulated maintain growth rates Atlantic salmon harvest stage throughout A grading machine separates salmon different classes several times hatchery fresh water sites The salmon grouped correspondingly stage given different combinations oxygen water temperature light depending desired growth rates When salmon reach weight grams transferred hatchery lakes remain there until reach weight grams They placed floating below fabric above preying birds During these final months fresh water salmon known smolts undergo series physiological morphological changes allow adjust water conditions In these lakes salmon quickly aided lights nutrient Just lights chicken coops accelerate growth flood lights above below water salmon growth Lights Right A simple light system Fjord Seafood Lake Chapo In addition other farming companies under water lights accelerate salmon growth Below Fish pellets distributed salmon either through automatic feeders The pellet increases salmon larger night weeks weeks plied hours until smoltification complete weeks In future smoltification probably place larger hatcheries instead lakes other countries noted Palacios veterinarian The tinct advantage salmon smolts raised control environmental conditions water quality temperature This environmentalists would because farming reduces water quality adding amounts nitrogen phospho causing eutrop hication evidenced algae blooms Eutrophication denotes aging Most lakes region oligotrophic youthful amounts accumulated nutrients However algae blooms beginning occur frequently these lakes Blooms prevent light penetration oxygen absorp necessary underwater maintaining biodiversity A recent study Professor Soto found feces uneaten accounts nearly percent water quality reduction Erosion runoff mostly result forestation waste cities account reduced water quality If salmon moved fresh water sites where water recirculation waste water treatment systems improves quality However major sites still years meantime fresh water salmon hatcheries continue releasing excess levels phosphorus nitrogen lakes ponds According Ch sanitary regulations Janu water quality cultivation centers monitored Currently scattering companies water quality known problem areas The policy Fjord Seafood cultivation center fallow after harvest three months Sometimes shadow salmon nutrient buildup bottom disappears after three months However average about months Kehler Besides water quality issues salmon impact native species Introduced populations early 1900s brown rainbow trout compete native In streams southern Patagonia Tierra Fuego there nothing brown trout No native remain remarked Professor Soto She continued Aside introduced species sport impacts native species salmon farming mostly occur salmon escape During heavy storms several million caped broken The escaped compete native merluza robalos Sometimes caped mostly Atlantic salmon return drifts bottom An escape millions salmon provide sport fishing although fishing guide Gavin MacPhail Escaped salmon Continued Much attention fresh water resources environmental groups results percent planet water saline Of which fresh occurs groundwater Only percent Earth water occurs biosphere La Riviere J W M Threats world water Sci Am September PK Fishy Fish Food B expensive producing salmon consume Up percent produc costs The aquaculture industry cannibal dogma feeding animal being produced That livestock industry trouble disease commented Fjord Seafood Technical Manager Miguel Jarpa dinner night Although salmon byproducts salmon other In conditions salmon includes other crustaceans Half content which mixture mackerel sardines anchovies With Pacific Ocean front Chile world second largest producer after Peru Other ingredients include mixture potato starch gluten flour wheat soybean feathers Feathers Yes imported Argentina feather flour source amino acids Nutritionally comprises proteins lipids which essential fatty acids ashes fiber additives minerals vitamins pigments This nutrient makes growing converting every kilos kilos additional weight What makes salmon pinkish Astaxanthin naturally occurring pigment synthetically produced added Proportionally Salmon flesh color classified scale Darker higher value market These salmon filets control study color salmon frozen Freezing reduces pigment color intensity lessening market value salmon Both salmon companies pigment producers trying figure maintain color intensity during freezing process pensive ingredients salmon continue unless finicky salmon eaters liking white salmon Most crustaceans tinted accumulated astaxanthin their systems feeding microalgae which carotenoids source color nature Higher chain animals salmon flamingos exhibit pinkish tones result eating crustaceans Currently pigment manufacturers experimenting mentation yeast replace intensive thetically produced astaxanthin However commercially available Production additives lucrative business Two world largest pharmaceutical chemical companies Swiss owned Roche German started BASF developed Puerto Montt supply vitamins pigments factories Three prominent companies built building plants Dutch Alitec Danish Biomar Chilean Ecofeed Dutch Trouw Chile Pargua sleepy overlooking Chilo Island These companies plants strategi cally located access shipping routes opening bridge Chilo heart salmon farming areas The proposed meter bridge meters longer Golden Gate public works project brate Chile bicentennial Projected million billed Latin America largest bridge minutes takes cross channel current ferry system Incidentally Chilean Peruvian other feeds currently banned European Union because fears officials there relation might exist between dioxin causing disease Institute Current World Affairs easier catch fight MacPhail remarked Farmed salmon identify because their tails devel somewhat stunted being trapped thousands other prior escape Escapes place lions break through consequently sands salmon To reduce threat several towing plastic replica Killer whale Orca through shooting lions using double The efficient cially acceptable killing lions illegal public relations nightmare industry double In Fjord Seafood salmon farms mortality predation dropped almost having outer angling inner holding Salmon looks haphazard placement balsa jaulas Spanish months until reach harvest The manner which balsa jaulas seascape questioning planning whether placed anywhere As turns placement cultivation centers impor salmon productivity Ocean currents daily tides recirculate water Authorization fresh water areas aquaculture operations granted through government concession permits The process obtain concession years Fjord Seafood Thomas Kehler In water sites continued plication approved National Fisheries Ser Ministry Economy Fisheries Subsecretary Navy Plus application requires environmental impact study series technical reviews Finally decree signed government permit sighed Kehler The Fish Doctor On Call Sea On Lin Lin Cultivation Center Fjord Sea Technical Manager Miguel Jarpa invited representatives Biomar Ecofeed house Biomar Ecofeed Danish Chilean supplies percent Fjord Seafood Jarpa veterinarian trained University Chile career Fundaci Chile 1980s salmon farming industry beginning Lin Lin manager summoned Jarpa provide diagnosis thousands vomiting pretty sight whether humans Upon arrival balsa jaulas light brown could stuck floating around param Rainbow trout being raised vomiting while another several kilome species source affected The representatives Jarpa developed possible scenarios throughout inspection process One primary complaints about salmon farms Doug Tompkins Pumal Park illegal killing lions companies One company particular Fiordo Blanco several cultivation centers fiords Pumal Tompkins found lions washed shore illegal salmon waste Several years lawsuits pressed Tompkins against Fiordo Blanco middle another public debate pitted another sector Chilean society salmon farming against project Conflicts Fiordo Blanco lessened recent years after change owner A Canadian company Heritage Salmon Fiordo Blanco PK Environmentalists Salmon Farmers Join Forces I often environmentalists aquaculture industrialists themselves However southern Chile together battle opponent proposed Alumysa project Toronto based Noranda Inc submitted environmental impact assessment EIA Chilean government construct aluminum smelter three hydroelectric power plants small communities Puerto Chacabuco Puerto Aisen Chile Called largest investment proposal Chilean billion Noranda plant would produce ingots export Alumina would imported Australia Brazil Jamaica processing southern Chile before export Asia The principal threat salmon farmers environmentalists jected solid toxic industrial waste accumulated Many salmon companies cultivation centers fjord leading Puerto Chacabuco The increased possibil contaminated water proposed plant spills barge traffic prompted salmon industry fight against project Several company executives warned relocate salmon farms aluminum smelter approved because their would polluted waters The volume EIA submitted Noranda September received thousands ments during public review period In December comment period closed Noranda contractor CH2Mhill began preparing responses barrage ments In August present revised posal Chilean Environmental Commission final approval rejection after dissecting The trout stomach digestive tract clean digested least Could Or maybe Or water polluted dered Jarpa No definitive answer seemed overly concerned which I thought strange considering thousands dollars product slowly starving death The Harvest Imagine somewhat process monitoring feeding salmon years They except circles Then harvest comes erything changes To experience moment I joined Fjord Seafood Salt Water Production Manager Jorge Uribe serve harvest process inland coast Chilo Island Uribe objective visit technique loading salmon transfer I particularly interested seeing salmon taken water Excitement built balsa jaulas trapping several hundred salmon corner Where trapped large funnel connected platform above Aided powered compressor water pushed under creating vacuum pulling through funnel On above square meter workers wearing raingear rubber boots Those nearest adjacent clubs their hands those further hooks impatiently awaiting salmon arrive In salmon water spray connected Thud I heard drone compressors Salmon being clubbed gills bleed freshly killed A slippery salmon flapping around ficult could damage harvester Hitting salmon precisely crucial quick death eventual product value Bruises gapping marks holes salmon caused stressed salmon weren harvested efficient manner From clubbing salmon chute docked barge where double walled plastic filled await Uribe instructing workers barge layers water In filling making salmon Uribe wanted salmon layer He hoping method would result temperatures throughout Previously temperatures ranged degree Celsius degrees Celsius bottom During transport processing plant salmon cooler temperatures value This significant market where difference between grade grade salmon cents Each weighed erage kilos fully loaded With aboard barge reduction gapping would profi Uribe periment worked temperatures ranged degrees Celsius degrees Celsius bottom This Institute Current World Affairs reduced gapping average percent percent increased value several hundred shipment thousands dollars spread throughout annual production This small effort increase product value On larger scale companies significantly improv harvesting techniques transporting salmon processing plant This being fleet boats handful companies Salmon taken transported directly processing centers accessible water At processing plant salmon unloaded through elaborate conveyor assembly If destined become filet headed gutted cleaned scaled weighed graded Dependin various factors gapping color salmon graded worst classes premium grade indus trial A industrial B Salmon further classified specific ranging Trim A Trim E Trim A Trim E least removed At conveyor salmon filets steaks placed plastic passed through freezer vaults degrees Celsius If product fresh remains minutes Products frozen three hours After freezer stage fresh salmon packed lated boxes frozen packs before being loaded climate controlled degree Celsius refrigerated trucks Fjord Seafood packages salmon under various trade names including Morey Windward Salmoamerica Omega Due recent collapse salmon prices current focus developing value added products steaks special packing spices dishes complete After salmon processed human percent weight waste What these heads tails bones scales internal organs blood Waste industries source material others Solids collected companies Pacifica Star Salmonoil processing poultry Fish produced making marga paints shortening among other items At Fjord Seafood plant Puerto Montt liquids tertiary treatment plant However processing plants Some beginning water treatment systems while others still return liquid waste An emerging market albeit fishy salmon byproduct skins clothing One friend article headline saying salmon leather revolutionize clothing industry Yeah right I castically You seeing Italian runway I words Chilean fashion designer Claudia Escobar presenting clothing Lights Chile Milan Italy during Fish Nutrition I Chile salmon preparation ranges fried baked grilled variety accompanying creamy sauces Un fortunately despite ungodly amount available fresh salmon demand sushi sufficient support sushi diversity starved Puerto Montt That nutritional value ounce cooked salmon filet calories grams protein grams saturated grams cholesterol Salmon considered efficient protein provider because average convert kilos weight Poultry requires three times weight Al though dependent animal Currently industrial salmon chicken farms protein principa ingredient However efficiency making questionable because process requires three kilos sardines ancho produce upcoming fashion It turns Escobar working clothing years designed salmon leather pants jackets shoes purses bathing suits Hmmm comment The Power Salmon Salmon farming continues strengthen regional national economies In country where nationwide employment percent The Chile salmon producing regions X XI percent A little people directly employed salmon industry another indirectly employed providing support services Driving Puerto Montt Chilo Island Fjord Seafood Miguel Jarpa I appreciation industry economic impact Over there business makes repairs company duces vesting salmon building fabricate boats salmon farms Jarpa continued pointing refrig erated container suppliers transportation providers Almost percent Chile gross domestic product exports According Economy Ministry farmed salmon seafood ranks fourth among national exports This ranking salmon percent export market behind mining almost ports billion copper percent sector products billion fresh percent mostly grapes apples ahead Chile popular export market percent In salmon accounted percent exports region which includes Puerto Montt Overall Chilean ports increased billion billion Of countries importing Chilean goods United States largest share perce followed Ja percent England percent Slicing dicing export statistics confusing analyzing world salmon market different Nevertheless important thing understand price salmon dropped sinker The principal culprit overproduction other Chile However completely Chile fault In Chilean salmon producers which seven foreign owned reaped great profits prices poured money further production The result production percent metric This bulge market prices July Atlan salmon current Other producers Norway Scotland Canada United States Alaskan seasonal catch Maine farmed salmon suffered influx Chilean salmon Chilean salmon farmers killing alevins stabilize market Fjord Seafood alone destroyed millions alevins maintain production targets metric previ On consumer buyers frolicking salmon According Chilean Association Salmon Trout Producers Japan imported percent Chil salmon harvest The United States imported followed European Community seven percent Latin America percent The Japanese market mainly imports Coho Rainbow trout because their texture richer color sushi other dishes On other buyers United States taken liking Atlantic salmon importing compared several thousand Coho trout In United States overall consumption tripled years Chilean salmon farmers obviously hoping number continue Who Dumping Wh Due overproduction salmon large U S market willing relatively cheap filets accusations dumping dogging Chilean exports Some years first I heard dumping refer trade It dinner party friend talking about company dumping bearings Only conversation environmental background I appalled perplexed about someone would bearings ocean Luck I mouth listened little closer 5Chilean National Institute Statistics December primary salmon producing countries Norway Chile UK Canada U S A Of worldwide production thousand cultivated salmon account percent salmon mostly Alaska Japan Institute Current World Affairs learn dumping imports another country value njuring domestic industry U S dumping basically corpo welfare consumers subsidizing producers CEO Thomas Kehler He unwillingly grown customed dumping petitions competitors U S When owned fresh flower business Colombia industry investigated U S De partment Commerce DOC The DOC through In ternational Trade Commission conducts investigations under authority Tariff Act Many foreign companies dumping efforts trade mechanism protect U S producers unfair petition Upon receiving petition salmon companies Maine New Hampshire state Washington DOC investigated Chilean salmon companies Of these three rating indicating selling their product produc determined dumping fresh Atlan salmon U S market Even companies investigated others deemed dumping DOC commissioners percent dumping tariff salmon producers Each company deposit percent gross sales U S Treasury Customs Service agency charge collect tariffs DOC dumping investigations include prelimi phase subsequent period reviews During second Period Review several Chilean salmon panies requested specific reviews seeking their hopefully lower For example works Fiordo Blanco company recently chased Canadian based Heritage Salmon salmon farms Maine under corporate ownership George Weston Ltd opted review received percent They still deposit percent sales Customs Service difference rates percent returned It consum complicated accounting exercise reason Kehler My dumping department eight people largest office administrative division Duties collected dumping tariffs U S Customs Service remain Treasury Depart Used operative words The crafty Demo cratic Senator Robert Byrd West Virginia added rider October Agriculture Appropriations Bill money distributed injured domestic plaints The rider known officially Continued Dumping Subsidy Offset Act simply The Byrd Amendment passed Congress signed President Clinton October Originally introduced Ohio Republican Senator Mike DeWine proposal never gained support questions about legality under World Trade Organi zation NAFTA trade rules Now foreign companies charged dumping essence paying their petitors United States Ironically world greatest market promoter United States world leading dumping duties According July report Cato Institute As April United States dumping countervailing duties items different countries making easily world largest The closest European Union countries duties place The legality Byrd Amendment prompted countries Australia Brazil Chile EC India Indonesia Japan Korea Thai complaint World Trade Organiza WTO This largest joint complaint WTO history against United States Due WTO pressures analysts believe Congress revisit issue repeal Act Payments U S Customs Service businesses filed dumping complaints amounted fiscal model efficiency ministrative program budge costing million A share checks collected steel industry manufacturers particular Torrington Company Timken Company Senator DeWine Ohio accounted percent total Examples other items slapped dumping tariffs include pressure sensitive Italy paper clips China pasta Italy course fresh Atlantic salmon Chile Tariffs collected fresh Atlantic salmon duties totaled fiscal And received money Only company Heritage Salmon Maine parent company Canada Fiordo Blanco Chile A wicked woven Salmon Farming Here Stay We market society maybe market society nonetheless driven demand supply Some salmon farming critics Doug Tompkins industry collapse question Reasons these predictions notion salmon farms negatively 7Alaskan salmon fisherman gotten dumping battle lately enlisting their Republican Congressman Don Young initiate investigations against Chilean salmon industry Congressman Young Chairs House Transportation Infrastructure Committee He recently Congressional delegation visit Puerto Montt Chile analyze maritime security within Not viewed friend Chilean salmon industry Young visit prompted regional governor mayor conspicuously absent profile They other obligations Chilo Island The Mayor quoted local newspaper saying I Mr Dumping comes PK impacting waters depend duction ecologically unsustainable Both propositions other downfall scenarios sible However business profitable Japanese Americans demand salmon driven solutions found In reduced water quality cultivation become based water purifying recircu lation treatment systems If fished mackerel sardines anchovies other discarded sought soybeans similar protein gumes substituted Tens millions dollars invested southern Chile salmon farming dustry adapt continue competitive Since there doesn downturn salmon consumption I would salmon southern Chile Given I suggestions industry Chile polish their image Knowledge technology being developed genetically modify salmon among other species Some Chilean salmon would introduce genetically modified GM salmon their salmon stocks Besides being blessed fortitude withstand diseases these GM salmon commercially harvestable sizes months whereas current cycle months Still would mistake follow The salmon industry Chile already proved produce market handle Why tinue flood market Moreover important reason consumers coming concerned about GM foods specifi cally requesting GM products Chile would losing great share world salmon market whiff suspicion selling genetically On tangible cosmetic scale industry needs clean aesthetic image Beaches Chilo Island along mainland Puerto Montt filled trash Styrofoam bottles empty contain litter beaches Whether accumulation caused salmon farms commercial fishing vessels local communities something needs about As salmon farming companies should promote adopt beach program patrol local torals periodically clean trash On Chilo Island between Castro Chonchi scenic pullout along highway offers spectacular views pastoral settings smaller islands Chilo eastern shore Unfortunately photographs bucolic setting difficult capture without cluding those ubiquitous balsas jualas frame This repeated dozens dozens viewpoints southern Chile If salmon permitting officials worked tourism industry place cultivation centers sight great complaints tourists would avoided Final Impressions Touring salmon farms hatcheries processing plants I continually surprised societies centuries fueled multi million industry Less years sector economy exist Chile until entrepreneurs could For everywhere I looked salmon I costs adding sonnel boats trucks housing transport electric bills someone entrepreneur totally different scene profit A crucial continue these profits protect resources especially water quality neither limitless Several researchers focusing their studies water resources particularly interaction between quality southern Chilean lakes composition surrounding forests Professor Soto University Aus begun study understand relationship Her initial findings indicate forests remaining intact serve filter fresh water runoff These native forests nated evergreen broad Nothofagus species property respect water quality having distinct ability retain nitrogen Water quality factor Chilean salmon farming success dependent surrounding water This economic value water quality serves incentive preserve native forests reason avoid clear cutting replaces forest livestock monoculture native trees In could Professor Soto research That Chilean salmon farming industry eventually become ardent protectors native forests It strange thought something digest Just imagine future Chilean billboard exclaiming large green letters EAT SALMON SAVE THE FOREST One After I Forest Society Fellow I taking dinner The author Fjord Seafood processing plant Chonchi Chilo holding frozen sealed salmon filet Institute Current World Affairs INSTITUTE OF CURRENT WORLD AFFAIRS Fellows Their Activities Wendy Call May MEXICO A Healthy Societies Fellow Wendy spending years Mexic Isthmus Tehuantepec immersed contradictory trends attempt industrialize develop along proposed Caribbean Pacific containerized railway desire indigenous peoples preserve their Mexico remaining growth forests With B A Biology Oberlin Wendy worked communications coordinator Grassroots International national campaign director Infact corporate accountability organization Martha Farmelo April ARGENTINA A Georgetown graduate major psychology minor Spanish Master Public Affairs Woodrow Wilson School Princeton Martha Institute Suzanne Ecke McColl Fellow studying gender issues Argentina Married Argentine economist mother small focusing genders which immensely important Italo Latino machismo Martha involved Latin America professional having worked Cath Relief Services Inter American Development Bank Costa Rica Human Rights Watch Ecuador Inter American Foundation El Salvador Uruguay UN World Conference Women Beijing Curt Gabrielson December EAST TIMOR With Missouri background MIT degree physics Curt spending years East Timor watching nation create education system ashes Indonesian system Since finishing MIT Curt focused delivering inexpensive culturally relevant hands science education minority income students Based Teacher Institute Exploratorium San Francisco worked youth teachers Beijing Tibet Mexican agricultural Watsonville California Peter Keller March CHILE Public affairs officer Redwood National Park planner Yosemite National Park before fellowship Peter holds B S Recreation R esource Management University Montana Masters Environ mental Law Vermont Law School As John Miller Musser Memorial Forest Society Fellow spending years Chile Argentina comparing operations parks forest reserves controlled Chilean Argentine governments those controlled private persons governmental organizations Leena Khan April PAKISTAN A U S lawyer previously focused immigration Leena looking ranging strategies adopted women movement inPakistan starting earliest nationalist struggle independence present She exploring myths realities women living under Muslim Pakistan through women experiences identity religion customs implications activism Born Pakistan immersed Persian Urdu literature grandfather raised States holds B A North Carolina State Uni versity J D University San Diego Andrew D Rice May UGANDA A former staff writer New York Observer reporter Philadelphia Inquirer Washington Bureau Newsday Andrew spending years Uganda watching waiting reporting possibility anticipated African Renaissance might begin administration President Yoweri Musevene Andrew B A Government Georgetown minor Theology after having spent semester Charles University Prague where served intern Velvet magazine later traveled experienced wrote about conflict Balkans James G Workman January Southern Africa A policy strategist national restoration initiatives Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt Jamie ICWA Donors Fellow looking southern African nations South Africa Botswana Mozambique Zambia maybe Zimbabwe through their utilizati conservation fresh water supplies A Yale graduate His spent junior Oxford Jamie journalism fellowship Poynter Institute Media Studies wrote New Republic Washington Business Journal before years Babbitt Since served Senior Advisor World Commission Dams Cape Town South Africa Author Keller Peter Title ICWA Letters The Americas ISSN Imprint Institute Current World Affairs Hanover NH Material Type Serial Language English Frequency Monthly Other Regions East Asia South Asia Europe Russia Mideast North Africa Sub Saharan Africa Institute Fellows chosen basis character previous experience promise They young professionals funded spend minimum years carrying designed programs study writing outside United States The Fellows required report their findings experiences field month They write subject formally informally The result unique reporting analysis periodic assess international events issues ICWA Letters ISSN lished Institute Current World Affairs Inc exempt operat foundation incorporated New York State offices located West Wheelock Street Hanover NH 03755 The letters provided charge members ICWA available libraries professional researchers subscription Phone E Mail ICWA valley Fax Web Site Executive Director Peter Bird Martin Program Assistant Brent Jacobson Publications Manager Ellen Kozak Institute Current World Affairs The Crane Rogers Foundation The information contained publi cation reproduced without writer permission